IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 50

The Power
of Small
The Effects of Distributed Energy
Resources on System Reliability

By Debra Lew, Marc Asano,
Jens Boemer, Colton Ching,
Ulrich Focken,
Richard Hydzik,
Matthias Lange, and
Amber Motley

I

IT'S A SUNNY DAY IN HONOLULU, HAWAII, AND
rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems across the island are
serving a significant penetration of the load. A large
generator trips offline, and frequency drops quickly-to
the point where a block of load is shed to restore the bal-
ance between generation and load. However, disengaging
those feeders disconnects not only the load but also the
PV generation on those feeders; so balance is not restored
and frequency continues to drop.
Meanwhile, in northern California, it's warm and sunny,
but a cloud layer is approaching the coast from offshore. Opera-
tions staff at the California Independent System Operator (CAISO)
brace themselves: Will load decrease because air-conditioning
needs drop, or will it increase because behind-the-meter (BTM) PV
generation drops? Both have happened before, and each requires a very
different system response.

©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/COOLKENGZZ

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPE.2017.2729104
Date of publication: 18 October 2017

50

ieee power & energy magazine

1540-7977/17©2017IEEE

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