IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 73

of two ISOs in the WI and operates a centralized day-ahead and
real-time market. As the resource
mix transforms from conventional
resources to one with increased
VER, the impacts of variability and
uncertainty are increasing. Traditionally, the WI would trade via
bilateral arrangements. However,
such exchanges rarely allowed for
intrahour economic trades. Furthermore, bilateral trades did not
optimize dispatch based on actual
transmission availability, nor did
they provide transparency regarding the marginal price of energy.
As a result, some BAs sought extended solutions to better balance
the increasing amount of VER.
In 2014, CAISO started to offer
its real-time market to and coordinate its operation with other western BAs through the EIM. Currently, the EIM operates in seven
other states in addition to California, covering almost one-half of
the load in the WI. The EIM has
resulted in US$173.2  million of
savings in dispatch costs over the
time period from the fourth quarter of 2014 through first quarter of
2017 (see Figure 2).
As a further benefit, when
California has surplus renewable
energy, the EIM has helped avoid
curtailment of renewables, resulting in an estimated 176,241 metric
tons of reduced CO2. Finally, by
diversifying the variability and
sharing flexible resource capacity,
the EIM has reduced the amount of
flexible reserves that would have
been needed by individual BAs.
As part of a bill that increased
its renewable portfolio standard
targets, CAISO was asked to conduct a study to evaluate the benefits and impacts of expanding to
a regional ISO. In 2016, studies
were completed that evaluated several benefits to California ratepayers, including reducing emissions
of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, as well as the creation or
retention of jobs and other benefits
november/december 2017

Alber
ta
Electr
ic
Syste
m
Opera
tion

Ontario
Independent
Electricity System
Operator
ISO
New England

MISO

New York ISO
PJM
Interconnection

Southwest
Power Pool
CAISO

Electric Reliability
Council of Texas

Seattle
City Light
Portland
General
Electric

Powerex
Puget Sound
Energy

PacificCorp

BANC/
SMUD

(a)

Idaho
Power
NV
Energy

PacifiCorp

California
ISO

Los Angeles
Dept. of
Water and
Power

Market Operator
Arizona Public
Service
Salt River
Project

Source: CAISO

CAISO
EIM Entity
Active Participants
Planned EIM Entry 2017
Planned EIM Entry 2018
Planned EIM Entry 2019
Planned EIM Entry 2020

(b)

figure 1. The (a) North American ISO/RTO and (b) Western EIM footprints.
BANC/SMUD: Balancing Authority of Northern California/ Sacramento Municipal
Utility District.
ieee power & energy magazine

73



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017

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