IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 76

these were different from the existing reserve products
including regulation and spin/nonspin reserve, based on a
number of factors (see Table 1). Other areas have determined
that they have been achieving sufficient ramping without the
need of a new product.
In 2016, the CAISO flexible ramping product and the
MISO ramp capability product were both implemented and

have been procuring ramp capability and providing price
signals since then. Figure 4(a) shows how these products are
designed to secure resource flexibility to meet ramping needs
in future market intervals due to variability and uncertainty
of net load during different scheduling processes [Figure 4(b)].
Ramp requirements are established based on reliability needs
in a cost-effective manner by looking both forward at load

Proposed

Current
Regulation Up
Fast-Responding Regulation Up
Regulation Down
Fast-Responding Regulation Down

Responsive

Regulation Up
Fast-Responding Regulation Up
Mostly Unchanged
Regulation Down
Fast-Responding Regulation Down
Fast Frequency Response 1

59.8 Hz, Limited Duration

Fast Frequency Response 2

59.7 Hz, Longer Duration

Primary Frequency Response

Nonspin

Contingency Reserves 1

SCED Dispatched

Contingency Reserves 2

Manually Dispatched

Supplemental Reserves 1

SCED Dispatched

Supplemental Reserves 2

Manually Dispatched
Ongoing Development

Synchronous Inertial Response
Source: ERCOT

figure 3. Current and proposed ancillary services in ERCOT. SCED: security constrained economic dispatch.

table 1. A comparison of ramp products with existing ancillary services.

76

Regulation

Spin and Nonspin

Ramp Product

What guides response

Automatic

Operator directed, sometimes
automatic

Dispatch

Frequency of use

Every interval

Rarely

Often but not every interval

What it is used for

Short-term changes in load
and VER

Contingencies

Forecast errors and (several minutes
time frame) ramp events

Penalty price

US$80-US$600/MWh
(medium)

Typically ≥ US$500/MWh (high)

US$5-US$250/MWh (low)

Nonzero bids allowed

Yes: wear and tear and
efficiency costs

Sometimes

No

When deployed

After dispatch interval
(in between dispatch)

After dispatch interval (sometimes
through new contingency
dispatch)

Part of dispatch interval

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com