IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 86

Finland
Norway

Estonia

North Sea

Ireland

Latvia
Denmark

Lithuania

United
Kingdom

Belarus
Poland
Belgium

Germany

Czech
Republic

Ukraine

Slovakia
France

Austria
Switzerland

Moldova

Hungary
Romania

Croatia

Serbia
Bulgaria

Italy
Spain
Albania

Portugal

Turkey

Greece

Cyprus

figure 1. The midterm projects in the European high-voltage grid. (Source: ENTSO-E; http://tyndp.entsoe.eu/).

general requirement is that the benefits of expanded operation
obtained from new infrastructure should outweigh their costs.
In a third step, potential projects are evaluated in detail
against each future vision to determine a set of indicators
[SEW, RES integration, carbon dioxide (CO2) avoidance, and
security of supply] for each single project. Information is published on interactive maps, as illustrated in Figure 1. These
indicators, among others, are used within a political process
addressing the most important projects in Europe.
Capacity-adequacy analysis is performed by ENTSO-E
and the national TSOs to evaluate the system's ability to meet
demand. Analysis can also be performed by generation and
flexibility providers as part of their investment decision process.
For example, at Electricité de France (EDF), investment decisions are based on system simulations at the European level.
The objective is not to ensure a secure and reliable system (as is
the role of TSOs) but to maximize investment revenues. In the
long term, this is effectively captured in simulations based on
load-generation balancing and a reliability criterion. The simulations follow a similar logic as the previously described infrastructure developers' calculations and compute hourly marginal
86

ieee power & energy magazine

system costs (in this case, based on in-house tools that represent
investment and production cost decisions in an iterative way)
so that only resources that can recover their investment cost
are built. The stochastic nature of parameters such as demand,
RES generation, hydro, and generation availability are modeled
using a large number of years of climate data combined with
Monte Carlo-based generation outage simulation. The reliability criteria require that the value of lost load equal 3 h/year of
the average annual marginal cost across the EU system.

China
SGCC and China Southern Grid (CSG) are responsible for
the planning, design, construction, and operation of the transmission and distribution networks in China. Generation
planning and construction are carried out separately by
five major generation companies and other independent
power producers.
The National Development and Reform Commission
(NDRC) of China sets the medium- and long-term national policy and priorities for energy development that meet economic,
social, environmental, and climate change commitments and
november/december 2017


http://tyndp.entsoe.eu/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover4
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