IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 92

✔ savings via on-peak capacity sharing and (to a lesser

extent) operational reserve sharing made deliverable
by the cross-seams transmission
✔ more efficient dispatch enabled by the relief of congestion between regions of different time zones.

Europe

Existing...
New Infrastructure

figure 7. The Northern Seas offshore grid infrastructure.
(Used with permission from ENTSO-E.)

In Europe, most HVdc projects are located offshore, especially around and across the Northern Seas. In February 2016,
the ministers of the ten countries surrounding these waters
signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) aimed at
developing the Northern Seas as a powerhouse, using offshore
wind as well as connecting markets. The European TSOs,
aligning with ENTSO-E's Ten-Year Network Development
Plan 2016, identified approximately 25 interconnection projects crossing the waters, having a total cost of €12-25 billion
and delivering socioeconomic benefits of €2-3 billion annually; these projects are shown in Figure 7.
Recently, TSOs from The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark signed an MoU aimed at investigating a "North Seas

1,000 kV ac
750 kV ac
±800 kV dc
±1,100 kV dc

figure 8. The UHVdc transmission systems planned under the SGCC administration for 2020. The east and west China grids will
be interconnected by eight UHVdc lines with a total capacity of approximately 60 GW.
92

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november/december 2017



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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover3
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