IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - 100

en la extinción del arco. pese a la
inflamabilidad tanto del aceite como
de los gases producidos durante el arco,
se logra un funcionamiento seguro al
sumergir los contactos en un ambiente
sin oxígeno, inmerso en el aceite y que
permita que los gases se enfríen al
subir a la superficie.

los primeros oCB se basaban úni-
camente en la separación de contactos,
y el largo tiempo de duración del arco
producido era de poca importancia. el
aceite se convirtió en el medio prefe-
rido para los disyuntores debido a su
mayor aislamiento en comparación con
el aire y también por su mayor eficacia

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ieee power & energy magazine

Avances en la
década de 1920
A principios de la década de 1920,
los ingenieros comenzaron a inves-
tigar la interrupción con la intención
de proporcionar mayores capacidades
de interrupción y períodos más bre-
ves de interrupción a los disyuntores.
en Westinghouse, la investigación fue
encabezada por el científico de inves-
tigación dr. Joseph slepian. su trabajo
tuvo como resultado una explicación
científica detallada sobre el comporta-
miento del arco basada en la ionización
de gases, tanto desde el punto de
vista teórico como práctico. durante
el arco, la corriente viaja gracias a la
ionización del medio de interrupción,
y a corriente cero, la interrupción de la
corriente es consecuencia de la desio-
nización del espacio del arco. Una de
las verdades fundamentales desarrolla-
das en los estudios de slepian fue que
la extinción de un arco dependía de
dos factores: 1) la tasa de recuperación
de la fuerza dieléctrica del espacio del
arco después de la corriente cero y 2) la
tasa en que el circuito externo aplica la
tensión que tiende a reactivar el arco.
A finales de la década de 1920, esta
investigación dio lugar al desarrollo de
un interruptor desionizante aplicado
originalmente a disyuntores de 69 kV,
y con el tiempo se aplicaron diversas
versiones de redes desionizantes (ana-
lizadas más adelante) a oCB a tensio-
nes de hasta 345 kV y corrientes de in-
terrupción de 63 kA. el desarrollo del
interruptor controló el arco y mejoró el
proceso de desionización, generando
un período más breve de duración del arco
y una mayor capacidad de interrupción
de la corriente. se muestra el montaje
de un interruptor desionizante de 69
kV en el gráfico 4. Consiste en una
red compuesta de placas de fibra, cada
una de las cuales se cortó en una forma
geométrica plana específica de mane-
ra que, cuando se montaran una sobre
otra, las placas dejaran espacio para los
contactos, los pasajes de flujo para la
ventilación de gases, la segregación del
arco y las cavidades para el aceite para
suministrar aceite nuevo y así enfriar
el arco y promover la desionización.
mayo/junio 2018


http://www.EasyPower.com/demo

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018

Contenidos
IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - Contenidos
IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy - Spanish - May/June 2018 - Cover4
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