Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 11

(Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) in humans. The specific agent of CWD is believed to be an abnormal prion (protein infectious particle) that is found in the brain, the nervous system and, to a lesser degree, in several other tissues of infected animals. It causes death of brain cells, and on a microscopic level, holes appear in the brain tissue, creating a sponge-like appearance. These changes are recognizable only in the later stages of the disease, so early detection is nearly impossible. Conclusive diagnosis is, for now, only after death by looking at certain areas of the brain and nearby lymph nodes. These prions are taken in by mouth and pass to the intestines. They exit the gut and migrate up the local nerves to the spinal cord, and then to the brain and other tissues. Prions are very hardy and can persist in the environment for a long time (at least 17 years). They are neutralized only with extreme temperature or when subjected to harsh chemical environments. The older an animal is the more likely it is to be affected. Some fawns are diagnosed with the disease every year, and it is not known if other older cervids are actually first infected as fawns. Males are more commonly affected than females, but the reasons are unknown. Therefore, older bucks and bulls are a group of special interest when conducting surveillance, such as when the Game Commission examines deer acting as if they may have CWD. Prions will readily form bonds with soil particles. Once they do, they are better able to survive in the animals’ digestive tracts, so the infective dose is dramatically reduced. We ask ourselves if this and the soil sampling behaviors of cervids at salt licks and scrapes are related to the increased prevalence in older males. CWD is a disease with a long incuNOVEMBER 2010

bation period; the average is 24 months before clinical signs develop, but it can be years more. Infected cervids can shed infectious prions into the environment for at least 11 months before clinical signs are observed. Prions capable of causing infection have been found in brain, nervous system and lymphoid tissues, as well as blood, urine and saliva. The Risk Factors In any disease management strategy the issues to be decided and the actions to be considered come down to assessment of the risks. These are often divided into those risks associated with the introduction of the disease agent and those that relate to its spread within the environment. What are they for CWD? The risks associated with having the CWD agent come to Pennsylvania include: Proximity to areas with CWD positive cases. With CWD around 20 miles from our border (see map) we certainly know we have it nearby. This may be the biggest threat right now. Having a history of receiving imports of live animals or potentially infectious material from CWD positive areas. Some states prohibit the importation of any cervids, and some prohibit importation from a CWD positive location. Some states, like Pennsylvania, have no ban on importation of live cervids from CWD positive locations. Having a history of allowing the importation of carcasses or parts of carcasses from CWD positive locations. Before 2005 Pennsylvania had no ban on the importation of potentially infectious cervid body parts, including raw taxidermy specimens. Is
11



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010

Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010
Contents
Bonds for a Lifetime
Memory Maker
CWD in Pennsylvania —Will it Come?
Eight in ’08
Do It Yourself Dirt Hole Set
A Shot in the Dark
Troy’s First Bear
Jamie Get Your Gun
Tip and the Woods Rabbit
Down to the Wire
November
Field Notes
Conservation News
Off the Wire
Another View
The Naturalist’s Eye
Straight from the Bowstring
Fun Game
Crossings
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 1
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Bonds for a Lifetime
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Memory Maker
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - CWD in Pennsylvania —Will it Come?
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Eight in ’08
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Do It Yourself Dirt Hole Set
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - A Shot in the Dark
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Troy’s First Bear
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Jamie Get Your Gun
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Tip and the Woods Rabbit
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Down to the Wire
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 34
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - November
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Field Notes
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 39
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Conservation News
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 47
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 48
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Off the Wire
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Another View
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - The Naturalist’s Eye
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 55
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Straight from the Bowstring
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 59
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Fun Game
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Crossings
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - N1
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - N2
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - November 2010 - Cover4
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