Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 53

well as the underbrush in our forest off the trails where I rarely venture anymore. Once a tick arrives on its host, it probes around for a soft, bloody site to attack, often in crevices. Normally, you won’t feel a thing. As David George Haskell writes in The Forest Unseen, “I suspect they charm our nerve endings, taming the cobralike neurons with the hypnotic music of their feet.” The tick presses its mouthparts into your flesh and saws an opening. Then they lower a barbed tube, called the hypostome, to draw out blood. Because it takes several days to get a full blood meal, it cements itself to your skin with a glue-like material called “attachment cement,” which is why a tick is so difficult to remove. During the first 24 hours it is attached, it is harmless. But later, when it is full, it takes water from your blood into its gut and spits it back into you, which is when it can transmit Lyme disease or two other diseases — babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The parasite Theileria microti causes babesiosis and Anaplasma phagocytophiolum causes anaplasmosis. As many as 2 to 12 percent of Lyme disease patients will have anaplasmosis and 2 to 40 percent babesiosis. This sometimes complicates the diagnosis and treatment, because the tick might transmit one or the other or both diseases and not Lyme to a patient. In rural New Jersey, for instance, the Center for Disease Control studied 100 black-legged ticks and discovered that 55 of them had at least one of the three pathogens. Both babesiosis and anaplasmosis have flu-like symptoms similar to those of Lyme disease but without the telltale bull’s eye rash. Some folks don’t recognize or even
JANUARY 2013

During the first 24 hours it is attached, a tick is harmless But later, when it is full, it takes water from your blood into its gut and spits it back into you, which is when it can transmit Lyme disease.

have symptoms of babesiosis, yet they can pass it on to others through donated blood. So far, Pennsylvania seems to be almost free of those two diseases, but they are more prevalent in New York and New Jersey. Unfortunately, it is probably only a matter of time until these diseases increase in the Commonwealth. Last year was supposed to be especially high in Lyme disease cases. That was because in 2010 there was a bumper crop of acorns, followed by 2011 when there were practically none. Dr. Ostfeld, forest ecologist Dr. Charles D. Canham, and colleagues at the Cary Institute first worked out the connection between the amount of acorns and the population size of white-footed mice. In abundant acorn years mice numbers soar but they crash when the acorn crop fails. According to Ostfeld, that leaves a large number of infected ticks looking for hosts. Without the mice, they are after us instead. At least one hunter friend of ours contracted Lyme disease last June. Although he did get the rash, he never saw the tick. I suspect it was a nymph that bit him. He also listed four places where he could have picked up the tick — turkey-hunting at our place, at a friend’s country property, and on his own country property, or his backyard at the edge of Altoona. If Ostfeld’s research is right, his backyard was the most likely habitat. In a paper for Conservation Biology, Ostfeld and other colleagues in “Effect of Fragmentation Risk,” wrote, “Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the risk of Lyme disease should be directed toward decreasing fragmentation of the deciduous forests of the northeastern United States into small patches…The
53



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013

Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013
Contents
PGC 2011-12 Annual Report
Late Season Grouse
Then and Now
Field Notes
Conservation News
Off the Wire
Another View
The Naturalist’s Eye
Fun Game
Straight from the Bowstring
Lock, Stock & Barrel
Crossings
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Cover2
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Contents
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - PGC 2011-12 Annual Report
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 3
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 4
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 5
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 6
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 7
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 8
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 9
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 10
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 11
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 12
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 13
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 14
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 15
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 16
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 17
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 18
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 19
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 20
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 21
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 22
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 23
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 24
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 25
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 26
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 27
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Late Season Grouse
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 29
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 30
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 31
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Then and Now
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 33
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Field Notes
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 35
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 36
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 37
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 38
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Conservation News
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 40
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 41
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 42
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 43
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 44
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 45
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 46
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Off the Wire
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Another View
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 49
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 50
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - The Naturalist’s Eye
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 52
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 53
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Fun Game
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Straight from the Bowstring
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 56
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 57
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 58
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Lock, Stock & Barrel
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 60
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 61
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 62
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - 63
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Crossings
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - A
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - B
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Cover3
Pennsylvania Game News - January 2013 - Cover4
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