Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 334

715352
research-article2017

HPXXXX10.1177/0018578717715352Hospital PharmacyHager et al.

Critical Care

Critical Care Pharmacist Market
Perceptions: Comparison of
Critical Care Program Directors
and Directors of Pharmacy

Hospital Pharmacy
2017, Vol. 52(5) 334-340
© The Author(s) 2017
Reprints and permissions:
sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
https://doi.org/10.1177/0018578717715352
DOI: 10.1177/0018578717715352
journals.sagepub.com/home/hpx

David R. Hager1, Rosemary A. Persaud2, Ryan W. Naseman3,
Kavish Choudhary4, Kristen E. Carter5, and Amanda Hansen6

Abstract
Background: While hospital beds continue to decline as patients previously treated as inpatients are stabilized in ambulatory
settings, the number of critical care beds available in the United States continues to rise. Growth in pharmacy student
graduation, postgraduate year 2 critical care (PGY2 CC) residency programs, and positions has also increased. There is
a perception that the critical care trained pharmacist market is saturated, yet this has not been evaluated since the rise
in pharmacy graduates and residency programs. Purpose: To describe the current perception of critical care residency
program directors (CC RPDs) and directors of pharmacy (DOPs) on the critical care pharmacist job market and to evaluate
critical care postresidency placement and anticipated changes in PGY2 CC programs. Methods: Two electronic surveys
were distributed from October 2015 to November 2015 through Vizient/University HealthSystem Consortium, American
Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), Society of Critical Care Medicine, and American College of Clinical Pharmacy
listservs to target 2 groups of respondents: CC RPDs and DOPs. Questions were based on the ASHP Pharmacy Forecast and
the Pharmacy Workforce Center's Aggregate Demand Index and were intended to identify perceptions of the critical care
market of the 2 groups. Results: Of 116 CC RPDs, there were 66 respondents (56.9% response rate). Respondents have
observed an increase in applicants; however, they do not anticipate increasing the number of positions in the next 5 years.
The overall perception is that there is a balance in supply and demand in the critical care trained pharmacist market. A total
of 82 DOPs responded to the survey. Turnover of critical care pharmacists within respondent organizations is expected to
be low. Although a majority of DOPs plan to expand residency training positions, only 9% expect to increase positions in
critical care PGY2 training. Overall, DOP respondents indicated a balance of supply and demand in the critical care trained
pharmacist market. In comparing RPD and DOP perceptions of the demand for critical care pharmacists, DOPs perceived
demand to be higher than RPDs (mean, 3.2 vs 2.8; P = .032). Conclusion: Although there is a perception of the oversupply
of critical care trained pharmacists, a survey of DOPs and CC RPDs found a market with positions available, rapid hiring,
stable salaries, and plans for expanded hiring of critical care trained pharmacists.
Keywords
critical care, employment, pharmacy, pharmacy residencies, pharmacists, students, surveys
The profession of pharmacy, and health care more broadly, is
experiencing an epic transition in care models toward preventive medicine, performance-based financial incentives,
and unique third-party partnerships, all of which are designed
to improve patient care and ensure resource sustainability. As
a result, some health system pharmacy departments have
shifted their focus from expanding acute care services toward
increasing pharmacy presence in ambulatory settings. In a
2015 survey, the American Hospital Association reported a
decrease in the number of US hospitals from 5795 in 2009 to
5686 in 2014, with an associated 29 764 total bed number
decrease.1 Paradoxically, the same report noted that the

1

UW Health-University Hospital, Madison, WI, USA
Florida Hospital Orlando, FL, USA
3
The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
4
University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
5
University of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH, USA
6
Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA
2

Corresponding Author:
David R. Hager, Manager, Patient Care Services (Transplant Service Line)
and Professional Development, Residency Program Director, PGY-1
Pharmacy, UW Health-University Hospital, 600 Highland Avenue,
Madison, WI 53792, USA.
Email: dhager@uwhealth.org


https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/journals-permissions http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0018578717715352 http://journals.sagepub.com/home/hpx

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 380
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 381
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 382
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 383
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 384
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_july2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/canadianpharmacistsjournal_05062019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_april2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/sri_supplement_201903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_february2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_december2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/tec_20180810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_julyaugust2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201807
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_april2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/sri_supplement_201803
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/slas_discovery_201712
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_february2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_december2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_november2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_september2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_julyaugust2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_supplement_201709
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_may2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201706
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201607
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com