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Hager et al.
number of critical care beds increased from 67 579 to 77 809
(15%) between 2006 and 2010. The reasons for these changes
are multifactorial and emphasize the increased acuity in our
inpatient population. However, despite this growth, the number of pharmacists providing direct patient care in intensive
care units (ICUs) has remained stagnant from the 1980s to
2006.2,3 This is surprising, considering that many studies
have described the positive impact that critical care pharmacists have on patient care, quality metrics, and financial goals
for organizations.4-8 Furthermore, the Society of Critical
Care Medicine (SCCM) recognizes pharmacists as an integral part of the critical care team.9
On the supply side, the pipeline of pharmacy school graduates pursuing a career in health system pharmacy has continued to increase over the years. The Association of Colleges
of Pharmacy described an increase in the number of students
pursuing hospital employment or residency training in its
annual Graduating Student Survey.10,11 Approximately 28%
(n = 2067) of students reported a plan to pursue employment
as a hospital pharmacist upon graduation from their college/
school of pharmacy in 2010 compared with 35% (n = 3510)
in 2015. Furthermore, 23% (n = 1708) of students indicated
their plan to pursue pharmacy residency upon graduation in
2010 compared with 27% (n = 2729) in 2015.
With the growing number of postgraduate year 2 critical
care (PGY2 CC) residency programs in the United States,
the number of employable advanced trained critical care
pharmacists is increasing substantially. In 2011, there were
79 PGY2 CC programs encompassing 103 resident positions
participating in the Match. This increased to 116 programs
and 156 positions in 2015.12,13 With the increasing supply in
highly trained critical care pharmacists and pressures to
expand pharmacist presence in the ambulatory setting, this
project sought to evaluate the dichotomy of care needs,
focusing on current trends in critical care through an assessment of critical care and health system pharmacy leaders.
The primary aim of this study was to describe the current
perception of critical care residency program directors (CC
RPDs) and directors of pharmacy (DOPs) on the critical care
pharmacist job market and to compare those perceptions.
Secondary aims were to evaluate critical care postresidency
placement and anticipated changes in PGY2 CC programs.

Methods
Survey Design and Development
Survey questions were developed independently by project
members of the Professional Development and Workforce
Committee (PDWC) of Vizient/University HealthSystem
Consortium (UHC). Questions were structured similar to the
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)
Pharmacy Forecast14 and workforce perceptions were structured similar to the Pharmacy Workforce Center's Aggregate
Demand Index15 to gain insight on practice and workforce

trends within critical care. These methods have been validated
previously.14,15 To compare perceptions, responses of high
demand were given a value of 5 and responses of low demand
were given a value of 1. Critical care position was defined
within the survey as a pharmacist assigned to an ICU pharmacy or whose primary responsibility (>50% of time) was to
critical care patients. Each question was revised through an
iterative process consisting of individual review by other committee members and submission to the survey committee for
final testing and approval. Reliability was ensured through a
test-retest process until question responses were consistent.
Questions were grouped together logically to collect organizational demographics followed by positions, hiring practices,
and market perceptions. Using Qualtrics (Provo, Utah), survey
questions were distributed electronically.

Participants
The Vizient PDWC surveyed member institutions and listservs hosted by ASHP, SCCM, and the American College of
Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) to assess critical care pharmacy
staff needs. Survey participants were selected based on the
title of PGY2 CC RPD and DOP. Two different surveys were
sent out in October 2015. The first survey, titled Critical Care
Pharmacy Residency Program Directors Survey, was targeted
to CC RPDs or those associated with those programs. This
survey was sent to the following listservs: Vizient/UHC
Residency Program Directors (focus on CC RPDs), ASHP
Connect-Section of Clinical Specialists and Scientists,
SCCM Critical Care Residency Program Directors, and ACCP.
A second survey, the Directors of Pharmacy Survey, was targeted to respondents in DOP or pharmacy leadership roles.
This survey was sent to the following listservs: Vizient/UHC
Directors of Pharmacy, ASHP Connect-Pharmacy Practice
Managers, and ASHP Connect-Pharmacy Leadership.

Statistical Analysis
Data were downloaded into an electronic spreadsheet and
summarized using descriptive statistics. The primary outcome of the study was to describe the perception of the
demand for critical care trained pharmacists among current
CC RPDs and DOPs in the United States through self-reported
market perceptions. The CC RPD question number 15 and
DOP question number 7 were compared using 1-way analysis
of variance.

Results
Critical Care Pharmacy Residency Program
Directors Survey
From October 6, 2015, to October 26, 2015, 66 respondents
completed the CC RPD survey. In 2015, there were 116
PGY2 CC programs; this resulted in a response rate of



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 380
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