Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350

350

Hospital Pharmacy 52(5)

Table 1. Baseline Demographic and Group Characteristics.
Study group (n = 44)

Control (n = 45)

P value

55.1 ± 14.9
23 (52.3)
27.6 ± 7.8
6 (4-8.8)

52.4 ± 16.3
24 (53.3)
28.4 ± 8.2
5 (3-8.5)

.41
1.0
.62
.17

0 (0)
5 (11.4)
5 (11.4)
1 (2.3)
11 (25.0)
10 (22.7)
4 (9.1)
0 (0)
8 (18.2)

5 (11.1)
4 (8.9)
4 (8.9)
7 (15.6)
10 (22.2)
9 (20.0)
1 (2.2)
0 (0)
5 (11.1)

.06
.74
.74
.06
.81
.80
.20
-
.38
.77

20 (45.5)
3 (6.82)
19 (43.2)
2 (4.6)

25 (55.6)
3 (6.67)
16 (35.6)
1 (2.2)

39 (88.6)
5 (11.4)
0 (0)

32 (71.1)
12 (26.7)
1 (2.2)

11 (25.0)
4 (9.1)
13 (29.6)
9 (20.5)
7 (15.9)
7 (4.3-9.8)

12 (26.7)
7 (15.6)
10 (22.2)
7 (15.6)
9 (20.0)
8 (5-11)

Description
Age, y, mean ± SD
Male, n (%)
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD
Hospital LOS, d, median (range)
Admission diagnosis, n (%)
Neurologic
Cardiac
Pulmonary
Renal
Infectious
GI/GU
Hematology
Endocrine
Other
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
White, non-Hispanic
Black, non-Hispanic
Hispanic/Latino
Other
Language, n (%)
English
Spanish
Other
Payor, n (%)
SCF
Medicaid
Medicare
Private
Self
No. of discharge medications, median (range)

.10

.78

.39

Note. BMI = body mass index; LOS = length of hospital stay; GI/GU = gastrointestinal/genitourinary; SCF = subsidized county funding.

discharge counseling was provided by the same pharmacist to
ensure consistency in counseling and teaching methods. The
mean (±SD) ages of the patients were 55.1 ± 14.9 and 52.4 ±
16.3 years in the study and control groups, respectively.
Forty-seven (52.8%) patients were male. The median (range)
length of stay for the study and control groups was 6 (4-8.8)
and 5 (3-8.5) days, respectively. There were no differences
between the groups' baseline characteristics including initial
diagnosis, ethnicity, primary language, or payor (P > .05, for
all comparisons) as shown in Table 1. The median (range)
number of discharge medications in study and control groups
was 7 (4-10) and 8 (5-11) (P = .39), respectively.
The 3-day readmission rate was 4.6% and 6.7% (P = 1.0)
and the 30-day readmission rate was 18.2% and 26.7% (P =
.45) in the study group and the control group, respectively.
The secondary outcome of ED visit rates in the study and
control groups at 3 days after hospital discharge was 0% and
6.7% (P = .24) and at 30 days was 4.6% and 11.1% (P = .43),
respectively. The number of days (range) to either first

readmission or ED visit was 22 (4-30) in the study group and
12 (4-20) in the control group (P = .26), as shown in Table 2.

Discussion
This study assessed the effects of discharge medication
counseling on readmissions, ED visits, and days to first readmission or ED visit in patients deemed high risk for readmission. Results from this study are consistent with previous
studies that have demonstrated reduced readmission rates
when a clinical pharmacist is involved in medication counseling prior to discharge.2,5,8-10 In a observational study,
Anderegg et al5 reported a significant reduction in 30-day
readmission rates of high-risk patients; rates declined from
17.8% to 12.3% (P = .042) after patients received discharge
education and medication reconciliation. Studies by
Wilkinson et al8 and Warden et al9 did not demonstrate statistical significance, but did establish numerical reductions in
readmission rates and increased medication adherence in



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
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