Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359

359

VanGalder et al.
Table 2. Percentage of Responses in Each Margin of Error Group.
Percent of estimates
within 0%-10% of
true costs

Percent of estimates
within 10.1%-20% of
true cost

Percent of estimates
within 20.1%-30% of
true cost

Percent of
estimates over
30% of true cost

3.95
17.11
18.42
6.58
14.47
14.47
13.16
7.89
5.19
1.3
6.58
6.58
3.95
9.21
2.63

3.95
11.84
9.21
6.58
2.63
6.58
3.95
3.95
0
11.69
3.95
11.84
2.63
1.32
10.53

22.37
6.58
6.58
17.11
7.89
2.63
0
2.63
5.19
2.6
2.63
2.63
14.47
7.89
3.95

69.74
64.47
65.79
69.74
75
76.32
82.89
85.53
89.61
84.42
86.84
78.95
78.95
81.58
82.89

Vancomycin level
Gentamicin level
Tobramycin level
Phenytoin level
Free phenytoin level
Albumin
PT/INR
aPTT
Serum creatinine
Basic metabolic panel
Complete metabolic panel
Platelet count
Complete blood count
ALT/AST
Lipid panel

Note. PT/INR = prothrombin time/international normalized ratio; aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; ALT/AST = alanine aminotransferase/
aspartate aminotransferase.

Table 3. Percentage of Responses in Each Margin of Error Group Pre and Post Intervention.
Percent of
estimates within
0%-10% of true
costs

Vancomycin level
Gentamicin level
Tobramycin level
Phenytoin level
Free phenytoin level
Albumin
PT/INR
aPTT
Serum creatinine
Basic metabolic panel
Complete metabolic panel
Platelet count
Complete blood count
ALT/AST
Lipid panel

Percent of
estimates within
10.1%-20% of true
cost

Percent of estimates
within 20.1%-30% of
true cost

Percent of
estimates over
30% of true cost

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

P value

5.88
5.88
5.88
5.88
17.65
11.76
11.76
5.88
5.56
5.56
0
11.76
5.88
5.88
5.88

40
10
10
30
20
10
0
0
27.27
0
0
0
30
40
27.27

17.65
11.76
11.76
11.76
11.76
0
5.88
0
0
16.67
5.88
5.88
0
5.88
23.53

0
40
40
10
10
0
20
0
0
27.27
18.18
20
10
0
45.45

11.76
11.76
5.88
23.53
5.88
0
0
0
5.56
0
5.88
5.88
17.47
0
5.88

10
10
10
30
20
0
0
20
9.09
0
18.18
20
0
20
9.09

64.71
70.59
76.47
58.82
64.71
88.24
82.35
94.12
88.89
77.78
88.24
76.47
76.47
88.24
64.71

50
40
40
30
50
90
80
80
63.64
72.73
63.64
60
60
40
18.18

.209
.084
.055
.078
.512
.929
.943
.284
.071
.727
.082
.47
.195
.008
.014

Note. PT/INR = prothrombin time/international normalized ratio; aPTT = activated partial thromboplastin time; ALT/AST = alanine aminotransferase/
aspartate aminotransferase.

cost was albumin, with 90% of respondents estimating
greater than 30% margin of error (Table 3).

Discussion
Several studies have evaluated the knowledge of medical
students, medical residents, physicians, and medical faculty

regarding the cost of diagnostic and laboratory tests.3-9 The
results of these studies have been consistent through time
and without regard to years of experience. The accuracy rate
of the students and physicians regarding laboratory costs
ranged from 2% correct within a 10% margin of error to 50%
correct within a 50% margin of error.3-9 A systematic review
estimated that when the margin of error was set at 25% of the



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 380
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 381
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 382
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 383
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 384
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