Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360

360
true cost, 33% of the students and physicians identified the
actual cost of the laboratory tests correctly.10
Collectively, these studies demonstrate the universal deficiency of cost awareness in our educational and clinical inpatient settings. However, there is a desire on the part of
practitioners to improve their knowledge in this regard. One
study found that physicians had a significant desire to know
more and agreed that the cost of a test affects their decision
to order it.9 They felt that improved access to cost information would affect their ordering behavior.9 There was not a
clear relationship between knowing the costs of laboratory
tests and ordering behavior, as ordering behavior may be
influenced by protocols at the health institution.9
Our study demonstrates that pharmacists' knowledge of
laboratory costs is similar to those of physicians. The opinions of the pharmacists who stated that they did not have
sufficient knowledge regarding the cost of laboratory data
correspond with the overall results. Although knowledge of
costs regarding only 2 of the tests showed statistical improvement after an educational session, positive trends were seen
with other laboratory tests.

Study Limitations
There was a low response rate of 23.9% to the initial survey. One possible explanation for the low response rate is
that there was no mechanism to ensure that the e-mails
were sent out by the hospital pharmacy contact person, so
everyone may not have received the e-mails or the reminders. The response rate to the postintervention survey was
29.4%. However, more pharmacy residents were expected
to respond during both stages of the study because the
researchers met with them face-to-face during the educational session. The standard deviation of responses was 2 to
3 times larger than anticipated, and the effect size was set at
10%. The combination of the above factors eroded the
power to roughly 30%.
Another limitation is the lecture intervention itself. The
presentation was fast-paced and provided limited active
learning. The residents may have not received adequate time
to observe and digest the individual costs of the chosen laboratory tests.
Last, it is possible that the pharmacists could have
researched the cost of the laboratory tests at the time of taking the survey. If this was the case, our results appear better
than the true knowledge of the pharmacists.

Hospital Pharmacy 52(5)

Conclusion
Overall, pharmacists poorly predicted the costs of common
laboratory tests. A short lecture regarding laboratory costs
demonstrated minor improvement in the participants' knowledge of the cost of laboratory tests reviewed. A pharmacy
student curriculum or pharmacist continuing education program should incorporate the costs of laboratory tests as part
of the pharmacist scope of practice. This will enable practicing pharmacists to identify their impact on the costs associated with health care.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect
to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Funding
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

References
1. Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services. National health expenditure fact sheet. https://www.cms.gov/Research-StatisticsData-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/National
HealthExpendData/NHE-Fact-Sheet.html. Accessed February
6, 2016.
2. Feldman L. Managing the cost of diagnosis. Manag Care.
2009;18:43-45.
3. Skipper JK Jr, Smith G, Mulligan JL, Garg ML. Physicians'
knowledge of cost: the case of diagnostic tests. Inquiry.
1976;13:194-198.
4. Dresnick S, Roth W, Bernard L, et al. The physician's role in
the cost-containment problem. JAMA. 1979;241:1606-1609.
5. Ringenberg R. Cost awareness by family practice residents of
commonly used laboratory tests, X-ray tests and medications.
Indiana Med. 1988;81:136-141.
6. Innes G, Grafstein E, McGrpgan J. Do emergency physicians
know the costs of medical care? CJEM. 2000;2:95-102.
7. Allan GM, Innes G. Family practice residents' awareness of
medical care costs in British Columbia. Fam Med. 2002;34:104109.
8. Allan GM, Innes G. Do family physicians know the costs of
medical care? Can Fam Physician. 2004;50:263-270.
9. Sehgal R, Gorman P. Internal medicine physicians' knowledge
of health care charges. J Grad Med Educ. 2011;3(2):182-187.
10. Clancy C, Murphy M. Laboratory test costs: attitudes and
awareness among staff in a regional hospital. Ir Med J.
2014;107(1):8-11.


https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NHE-Fact-Sheet.html https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NHE-Fact-Sheet.html https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NHE-Fact-Sheet.html

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 380
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 381
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 382
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 383
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 384
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_july2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/canadianpharmacistsjournal_05062019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_april2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/sri_supplement_201903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_february2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_december2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/tec_20180810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_julyaugust2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201807
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_april2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/sri_supplement_201803
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/slas_discovery_201712
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_february2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_december2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_november2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_october2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_september2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_julyaugust2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_supplement_201709
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_june2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/hospitalpharmacy_may2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201706
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/sage/fai_201607
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com