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meta-analysis reported that the overall incidence of serious
and even fatal ADRs worldwide was 6.7% and 0.32% of hospitalized patients, respectively.1,2 Many hospitalizations and
emergency visits caused by ADRs are preventable.10-12
In addition to compromised patient health, ADRs place a
significant economic burden on health care budgets. The
WHO reports that the costs of ADRs, including hospitalizations, surgery, and lost productivity, exceeded the cost of
actual therapeutic treatment in some countries.3 Up to 15% to
20% of the health care budgets of several countries is used to
treat drug-related problems.6 Correct ADR reporting would
be cost-effective by minimizing ADRs incidence and hospital admissions.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) strategies of ADR reporting among
United Arab Emirates (UAE) health care workers (pharmacists and practitioners) in different health care settings.
Highlighting this problem and targeting its causes should
enable us to initiate essential steps to improve awareness of
ADR reporting in UAE and devise more practical means for
ADR reporting so that it becomes a routine part of the professional obligation of UAE health care professionals.
All procedures were performed in accordance with the
ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research
committee and with the Helsinki Declaration and its later
amendments or comparable ethical standards. The ethics
committee approval of each involved health care setting was
obtained prior to starting the study. The subjects involved in
the study gave informed consent.

Methods
A self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire was
designed and randomly distributed to different UAE hospitals and pharmacies to assess KAP strategies of ADR reporting in different health care settings. The study involved
health care professionals, including medical doctors, community pharmacists, and hospital pharmacists who were
working in different health care settings in different areas.
A KAP questionnaire of 14 questions was designed similar to those in previous studies.11,13-15 The additional 6 questions at the beginning of the survey aimed to collect
demographic details such as age, gender, profession (community pharmacist, hospital pharmacist, physician), nationality, emirate of residence, and type of working sector
(private or government). The last question aimed at collecting suggestions for improving ADR reporting. The validity
of the questionnaire was measured by pretesting it with a
sample of health care professionals, and modifications were
carried out as per their suggestions.
Each study subject was approached, the study purpose
was briefly explained, and informed consent was obtained.
The questionnaire was made available to different health
care personnel (N = 150) by e-mail and by personal interview. Each participating subject was given sufficient time to
fill out and submit the questionnaire.

Hospital Pharmacy 52(5)
Table 1. Demographic Details of Health Care Personnel Sample
(N = 91).
Demographic details
Age (Yrs)
Sex
Female
Male
Profession
Doctor
Community pharmacist
Hospital pharmacist
Sector
Private
Government
Emirate
Abu Dhabi
Ajman
Dubai
Fujairah
Ras Al Khaima
Sharjah
Umm Al Quwain

Mean ± SD or n (%)
30.8 ± 7.6
41 (45.1%)
50 (55%)
16 (17.6%)
42 (46.2)
33 (36.3%)
23 (25.2%)
68 (74.7%)
14 (15.4%)
4 (4.4%)
25 (27.5%)
11 (12.1%)
5 (5.5%)
24 (26.4%)
8 (8.8%)

Statistical Analysis
The questionnaire results were coded and analyzed using the
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20
(SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois). The data were analyzed
descriptively for each reporter category (community pharmacist, hospital pharmacist, and medical doctors).
Descriptive statistics (mean ± SD, counts, and percentages)
were used for responses to identify KAP of ADR reporting.
The relationship between the different professional classes
and their knowledge and practice of ADR reporting were
determined using chi-square test at P < .05.

Results
Of the 150 survey questionnaires circulated, 91 responded.
The overall response rate was 60.7% (45.1% male and 55%
female). The mean ± SD age of responders was 30.8 ± 7.6
years. The response rate of medical doctors, community
pharmacists, and hospital pharmacists was 17.6%, 46.2%,
and 36.3%, respectively. The response rate from the private
sector and government sector health care settings was 25.2%
and 74.7%, respectively. The full demographic details that
were collected are summarized in Table 1.
Response results of the questions assessing the knowledge of pharmacists/practitioners are illustrated in the Figure
1. Eight-one percent, 83%, and 83.3% and of medical doctors, community pharmacists, and hospital pharmacists,
respectively, were not aware of the existence of a reporting
center in UAE and 56%, 60%, and 72% were not aware of a
reporting procedure. Their responses were nonsignificant.
Poor ADR reporting practices were shown by responders;



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017

Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 317
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 318
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 319
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 320
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 321
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 322
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 323
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Editorial, For Sale: FDA Priority Review Vouchers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 325
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Current FDA-Related Drug Information; Approvals, Submission, and Important Labeling Changes for US Marketed Pharmaceuticals
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Summaries of Safety Labeling Changes Approved by the FDA: Boxed Warnings
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 328
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 329
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions: Levofloxacin-Induced Neuroexcitation and Hallucinations Statin-Induced Muscle Rupture Mefloquine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Methimazole-Induced
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 331
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 332
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 333
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 335
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 336
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 337
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 338
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 339
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 340
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Bevacizumab (BCapOx) Regimen for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 342
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 343
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 344
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 345
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 346
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 347
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Clinical Pharmacy Discharge Counseling Service and the Impact on Readmission Rates in High-Risk Patients
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 349
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 350
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 351
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 352
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Mannitol Prescribing Practices With Cisplatin Before and After an Educational Newsletter Intervention
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 354
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 355
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 356
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Pharmacists’ Knowledge of the Cost of Laboratory Testing
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 358
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 359
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 360
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Practices Among United Arab Emirates Pharmacists and Prescribers
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 362
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 363
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 364
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 365
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 366
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Postoperative Pain Management With Liposomal Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Knee and Hip Arthroplasty at a Community Hospital
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 368
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 369
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 370
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 371
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 372
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 373
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - Formulary Drug Reviews
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 375
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 376
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 377
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 378
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 379
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 380
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 381
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 382
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 383
Hospital Pharmacy - May 2017 - 384
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