Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 27


Cockpit recorders in Eastern 66 revealed
that this scenario is just what happened.
But Fujita's theory proved controversial,
and it wasn't broadly accepted until
1985, when more detailed data from
another accident finally convinced
the skeptics. Soon after that, the
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) launched a program aimed at
eliminating microburst accidents.
The heart of the program was a training
course for pilots on microburst avoidance
techniques based directly on Fujita's
theory. It was spectacularly successful. In
the decade prior to 1985, over 750 people
died in microburst-related commercial
accidents crashes in the U.S. After the FAA's
training program began, only one fatal
commercial accident due to a microburst
occurred in the U.S. (in 1994).
Think about that for just a second. We
often boast about ROI in corporate training
world, but imagine creating a training
course that saves 75 human lives per year.
Talk about a return on an investment!

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
What's more amazing is that microbursts
are just one threat out of thousands that
have been neutralized over time through
targeted pilot training. This cycle of
investigation and training has resulted in
a continuous, spectacular improvement
in commercial aviation safety. Since the
beginning of commercial aviation in
the 1930s, the rate of fatal accidents has
steadily and almost exponentially declined
from one per million passenger miles flown
to approximately one per three or four
billion passenger miles flown now.

APPLYING THE LESSONS FROM
AVIATION IN OTHER DOMAINS
Commercial pilot training is one of the
most amazing success stories in the
history of education. It makes sense to
ask what lessons we might learn from it
that we could apply to other domains. The
good news is that the techniques used
to achieve these results can be applied
in almost any other industry. The key is a
cycle of improvement in which:
1 | An incident is investigated.

2 | Analysis determines a root cause.
3| A
 response to eliminate the problem
is defined.
4 | Training is created to teach that
response to practitioners.
My colleagues and I have developed a
general process for implementing such a
methodology that we call Critical Mistake
Analysis (CMA). We have implemented
CMA successfully in domains that range
from clerking a department store counter,
to quoting insurance policies, to drilling an
oil well. The central idea of CMA is that the
challenges that merit the most attention
in learning a skill are the ones that cause
the most impactful mistakes when the skill
is performed in real life.

CRITICAL MISTAKE ANALYSIS
TASK 1 | INVESTIGATE
The first step in investigation is to compile
a list of the mistakes that practitioners of
a target skill make in real life by auditing
and observing the skill being performed;
interviewing and surveying practitioners
and experts; and tapping into existing
data sources, such as records of customer
service complaints.

IMAGINE CREATING
A TRAINING COURSE
THAT SAVES 75
HUMAN LIVES PER
YEAR.
The next step is to look for patterns of
similar issues. For example, in general
(as opposed to commercial) aviation, we
might notice patterns like these:

*	A pilot tries to eke a few extra miles out
of a tank of fuel and runs dry in mid-air.
*	A pilot tries to traverse a gap in a line of
thunderstorms and is trapped in a storm
cell when the gap closes.
*	A pilot "buzzes" his girlfriend's house and
crashes. (I say "his" because, interestingly,
I've found no instance of a female pilot
buzzing her boyfriend's house.)
*	A pilot trying to land on a low-visibility
day continues to descend despite not
seeing the runway and hits an obstacle
or misses the runway.
The next step in the investigation is to
determine the criticality of each mistake
to decide which ones are most important
to address in training. Criticality is an
estimate of the positive impact we can
expect from training on this mistake - in
other words, the value of training on that
mistake. In general,
CRITICALITY = F * C * R
where:
*	F is the frequency of the mistake.
*	C is the cost of making the mistake.
*	R is the remediability of the mistake,
meaning the percentage of all
instances that we expect could
be eliminated by training.
The first two criteria should be somewhat
self-explanatory; basically, we would like
to eliminate the mistakes that have the
greatest overall impact, which is given by
F * C. Remediability (a word we made up)
takes account of the fact that some mistakes
are easier to fix than others. Buzzing your
girlfriend's house is a (strangely) frequent,
and very costly, mistake, but it is a mistake
that is caused by stupidity rather than
ignorance. Training does a much better
job of fixing ignorance than stupidity, so
addressing "house buzzing" might not have
a big impact.
To account for this reality, remediability
is defined as the percentage of the
occurrences of a given mistake we
expect a priori to eliminate through
training. Mistakes that are caused by lack
of knowledge or skill are assigned high
remediability scores, while those caused

TRAINING INDUSTRY MAGAZINE - CONTENT DEVELOPMENT 2017 I SPECIAL EDITION I WWW.TRAININGINDUSTRY.COM/MAGAZINE

| 27


http://www.trainingindustry.com/ezine/ezine.aspx

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition

Perspectives
Table of Contents
Infographic
Frontline Capability Building: An Elusive Dream?
Flipped Kirkpatrick: Designing Learning Journeys for Business Impact
When Good Content Becomes Great
Design Better, Design Backward
Boost Efficiency and Do More with Less: 5 Practical Ideas for Learning Leaders
Converting Mobile Learning to HTML5
Secrets of Successful Large-Scale Learning Programs
Critical Mistake Analysis: Creating Effective Hands-On Learning Experiences
Secure Mobile Learning
Delivering Content That Lives Up to Experience
Keeping a Lid on Content Until You Design
Designing Performer-Centric Learning Systems for Millennials, Gen Z and Beyond
Organizational Tensions in Employee Onboarding
A Winning Approach to Leadership Development
What's Online
Company News
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Intro
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover1
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover2
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Perspectives
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Table of Contents
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 5
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Infographic
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 7
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Frontline Capability Building: An Elusive Dream?
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 9
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Flipped Kirkpatrick: Designing Learning Journeys for Business Impact
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 11
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 12
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 13
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - When Good Content Becomes Great
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 15
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Design Better, Design Backward
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 17
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Boost Efficiency and Do More with Less: 5 Practical Ideas for Learning Leaders
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 19
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 20
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 21
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Converting Mobile Learning to HTML5
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 23
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Secrets of Successful Large-Scale Learning Programs
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 25
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Critical Mistake Analysis: Creating Effective Hands-On Learning Experiences
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 27
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 28
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 29
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Secure Mobile Learning
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 31
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Delivering Content That Lives Up to Experience
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 33
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 34
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 35
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Keeping a Lid on Content Until You Design
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 37
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Designing Performer-Centric Learning Systems for Millennials, Gen Z and Beyond
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 39
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 40
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 41
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Organizational Tensions in Employee Onboarding
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 43
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - A Winning Approach to Leadership Development
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 45
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - What's Online
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Company News
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20191112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20190910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20171112_se
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2016fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2016summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2016sales
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2016spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2016winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015outsourcing
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015leadership
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2015winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2014fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2014summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2014spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2014winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2013fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2013summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2013spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2013winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2012fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2012summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2012spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2012winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2011fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2011summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2011spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2011winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2010fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2010summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2010spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2010winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2009fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2009summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2009spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2009winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2008fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2008summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trainingindustry/tiq_2008spring
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com