Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 28


THE TECHNIQUES THAT ACHIEVED THESE RESULTS IN AVIATION CAN
BE APPLIED IN ALMOST ANY OTHER INDUSTRY.
by poor judgment, process issues or
perverse incentives are given low scores.
The final step in investigation is a Pareto
analysis, in which we list the mistakes in
order of criticality and identify a cutoff point
at which the value of addressing the nextmost critical mistake no longer justifies
the effort and expense of doing so. It is
called a Pareto analysis because generally,
the criticality of a given set of mistakes
follows a Pareto, or "80/20," distribution,
with a small set of mistakes accounting
for most of the overall negative impact.
That's good news, because it implies that
focused training addressing the handful of
mistakes at the top of the chart will have a
disproportionate positive impact.
TASK 2 | ANALYZE
The next step is a root cause analysis
of each mistake on our list focusing, in
particular, on four components:
*	Situation
	
The situational factors that make
the mistake likely.
*	Decision
	
The critical decision that leads
to the mistake.

*	Misconceptions
	(1) The airplane can handle whatever
wind gusts it is likely to encounter,
and (2) the throttle should always
be cut back if the airplane floats
above the glideslope.
*	Consequence
	Described above in detail.
TASK 3 | DEFINE THE RESPONSE
Once we have analyzed a mistake, the
task of defining the correct response
falls to subject matter experts. Often,
the response is already known, just
not by practitioners. In some cases,
the response is fairly obvious, given
the problem, while in a few cases, the
response requires some effort to define.
TASK 4 | TRAIN
The most effective way to train learners to
avoid a mistake is to construct a realistic
learn-by-doing scenario in which learners
confront the challenge that typically leads
to the mistake and practice executing the
correct response.
An effective challenge meets three main
goals:

*	Misconception
	
The misconception that motivates
the wrong choice.

*	Ensure that the learners who would
make the mistake in real life will
make it in training.

*	Consequence
	
The outcome of making the mistake,
and why it occurs.

*	Make the simulated consequence of
the mistake as memorable as possible.

For example, for the microburst problem,
the analysis might look something like this:

*	Make the situation as authentic as
possible to ensure that learning is
transferred to the real world.

*	Situation
	Flying "low and slow" near a
thunderstorm, especially while
approaching for landing.

A challenge in CMA consists of five
components:

*	Decision
	Failing to attempt an escape as
soon as a potential microburst
condition is detected.

| 28

*	Backstory
	A description of the situation in
which we initially place the user; for
example, "approaching for landing in
thunderstorm conditions."

*	Action sequence
	For example, a sequence paralleling
what Eastern 66 experienced.
*	Decision point
	For example, the last point in our
scenario at which a pilot could
throttle up and expect to escape.
*	Playout of consequences
	For example, a crash sequence that is
as faithful as possible to what happened
to airplanes like Eastern 66.
*	Coaching and feedback
	Learners may need help to understand
fully the mistake they made and how
it led to the observed consequences.
Tailored coaching enhances the learners'
ability to process and assimilate the
lesson they learned.
Once we have sketched challenges in this
way for all of our targeted mistakes, we have
completed our critical mistake analysis.

THE FUTURE OF CMA
We have successfully utilized CMA in a wide
variety of domains. In almost every case,
the biggest challenge is data acquisition,
because corporate training initiatives are
not generally designed to process and
analyze performance data continuously
from the field. But the rapid digital
transformation of the industry suggests
that this problem will be less and less of an
obstacle as more and more performance
data is collected automatically. For
example, airplanes now continuously track
performance data on both equipment
and pilots. The era of "big data" is at hand,
and one of the most exciting uses of
that data will be to enable a continuous
improvement training methodology that
allows us to implement a critical mistake
analysis approach in every domain.
Dr. Gregg Collins is the head of instructional
design for NIIT's Corporate Learning Group.
Email Gregg.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition

Perspectives
Table of Contents
Infographic
Frontline Capability Building: An Elusive Dream?
Flipped Kirkpatrick: Designing Learning Journeys for Business Impact
When Good Content Becomes Great
Design Better, Design Backward
Boost Efficiency and Do More with Less: 5 Practical Ideas for Learning Leaders
Converting Mobile Learning to HTML5
Secrets of Successful Large-Scale Learning Programs
Critical Mistake Analysis: Creating Effective Hands-On Learning Experiences
Secure Mobile Learning
Delivering Content That Lives Up to Experience
Keeping a Lid on Content Until You Design
Designing Performer-Centric Learning Systems for Millennials, Gen Z and Beyond
Organizational Tensions in Employee Onboarding
A Winning Approach to Leadership Development
What's Online
Company News
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Intro
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover1
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover2
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Perspectives
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Table of Contents
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 5
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Infographic
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 7
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Frontline Capability Building: An Elusive Dream?
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 9
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Flipped Kirkpatrick: Designing Learning Journeys for Business Impact
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 11
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 12
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 13
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - When Good Content Becomes Great
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 15
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Design Better, Design Backward
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 17
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Boost Efficiency and Do More with Less: 5 Practical Ideas for Learning Leaders
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 19
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 20
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 21
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Converting Mobile Learning to HTML5
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 23
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Secrets of Successful Large-Scale Learning Programs
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 25
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Critical Mistake Analysis: Creating Effective Hands-On Learning Experiences
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 27
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 28
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 29
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Secure Mobile Learning
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 31
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Delivering Content That Lives Up to Experience
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 33
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 34
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 35
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Keeping a Lid on Content Until You Design
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 37
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Designing Performer-Centric Learning Systems for Millennials, Gen Z and Beyond
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 39
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 40
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 41
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Organizational Tensions in Employee Onboarding
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 43
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - A Winning Approach to Leadership Development
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - 45
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - What's Online
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Company News
Training Industry Magazine - Content Development 2017 Special Edition - Cover4
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