Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398

TABLE 3. The effect of beverage in the bottle in the past 7 days
HPC Results in CFU/mL
Beverage

n

Proportion

Water

72

Other beverages,
include coffee/
tea, sports/energy
drinks, soda, juice,
and sliced fruit

16

Mean

Standard
Deviation

Minimum

Maximum

81.82%

7.07 × 103

1.44 × 104

<1

6.62 × 104

18.18%

5.54 × 105

2.10 × 106

4

8.03 × 106

Coliform
P-value
(Mann-
Whitney
U test)

P-value
(Mann-
Whitney
U test)

0.02

< .01

*Two respondents indicated there was nothing in the bottle and were excluded from beverage analysis.
*The "< 1" values were coded as "0.5" in order to calculate means.

refill frequency (P < .05). However, the effect of weekly
bottle use frequency and daily refill frequency on HPC and
coliform results was not significant.
With regard to when people empty their bottles, 25
(27.78%) respondents indicated that they don't dump their
bottles because they usually drink everything. On the other
hand, 14 (15.56%) respondents indicated that they never
dump the contents of their bottles and just add more to
what was left from the day before. In addition, 16 (17.78%)
indicated that they empty out their bottles more than once
a day. A one-way ANOVA revealed that the impact of dump
frequency on ATP, HPC, and coliform results was not
significant (P = 0.63, 0.34, and 0.64, respectively; data was
not included in the table).
Interestingly enough, more than half (51.11%) of the
respondents indicated that they have shared their bottles
with others. Again, no significance was found on the effect
of sharing behavior (P = 0.76, 0.52, and 0.52, respectively)
at the 0.05 level.
Effect of bottle cleaning behavior
With regard to cleaning behavior, the majority of
respondents (84.44%) indicated that they cleaned their
bottles either by rinsing, washing, or both. Only 14
(15.56%) indicated that they never clean their water bottles.
Of those people who indicated they rinse their bottles,
46.34% indicated that they rinsed every day and 39%
indicated that they had most recently rinsed their bottles
on the previous day. Of those who wash their bottles, 40%
indicated that they wash once a month, with 14 (31.11%)
reporting that the most recent time that they washed was
more than seven days ago. The dominant method of bottle

398

Food Protection Trends November/December

washing was washing with soapy water/baking soda/
cleansing tablets (75.56%), followed by the use of cleaning
tools (e.g., brush, sponge) (46.67%). When they were sick,
45.56% of the respondents reported bottle cleaning more
frequently, while 52.22% reported that their bottle cleaning
behaviors were about the same.
Clearly, there was a relationship between bottle cleanliness and whether or not people rinsed/washed their
water bottles. However, when bottle cleaning behaviors
were correlated with contamination results, findings were
surprising. Results showed that cleaning behavior has
a significant impact on HPC and coliform counts (P <
.05 and P = 0.03, respectively). However, factors such as
cleaning frequency, last time of cleaning, cleaning method,
and whether behavior changed during illness were not
significant (Table 4).
Demographics
Gender, age, and education level were not significantly
associated with contamination level of water bottles.
Of the ninety respondents approached, 68.89% of
respondents were female, and the majority (80%)
reported being 18-29 years of age. Overall, all of the
respondents had at a least high school level education.
43.33% had a high school diploma or equivalent as the
highest degree they received, followed by 31.11% with a
bachelor's degree earned.
DISCUSSION
Bottled water consumption has steadily increased over
the past 15 years, according to a report published by
Business Wire (6). The global bottled water market, which



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 451
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 455
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 457
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 461
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 467
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 483
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 485
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 486
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 488
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 530
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 531
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover4
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