Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400

from a local retailer as controls) were considered dirty
and failed the ATP test. In addition, heterotrophic plate
counts were tested as an overall indicator of the quality
of water that had been in the water bottle. According
to Allen, Edberg, & Reasoner (2), the number of HPC
bacteria in drinking water varies widely, and it is not
surprising that different countries establish different
upper HPC limits in drinking water. The Netherlands,
Sweden, and Germany have set a regulation of 100 CFU/
mL for drinking water (3). The maximum HPC level of
bottled water legally permitted in Taiwan is 200 CFU/
mL (33). The microbiological standard of bottled water in
Massachusetts in the United States follows a guideline of
500 CFU/mL for HPC (21). The HPC results of the two
control bottles were less than 1 CFU/mL. Of the PBS-T
solutions collected from the interior surfaces of 90 water
bottles, 63 (70%) were above the limit of 100 CFU/mL,
60 (66.67%) were above 200 CFU/mL, and 54 (60%)
had a HPC result higher than 500 CFU/mL. Moreover,
coliform bacteria were also found on the interior surfaces
of respondents' water bottles. According to the standard
of microbiological quality established by FDA (15) for
total coliforms in bottled water, coliform counts shall
not exceed 1 CFU/100mL. Of the 90 samples analyzed
for total coliforms, 21 (23.33%) contained more than 1
CFU/100mL. Four samples were reported with coliform
counts greater than 150 CFU/100mL.
While microbial counts were not determined for exterior
bottle surfaces, ATP levels suggest these surfaces may serve
as fomites that facilitate the transmission of infectious
organisms (36). The data clearly demonstrate that the
exterior cleanliness of reusable water bottles is associated
with bottle materials. As this study showed, among the four
bottle materials examined (hard plastic, soft plastic, metal,
and glass), glass bottles have the lowest reading of organic
residue on the exterior surface. This might be attributed
to the fact that glass is nonporous and easy to clean, but
perhaps more importantly, it is easy to see when it is
sufficiently clean, compared to plastic or metal bottles.
The exterior cleanliness of reusable water bottles was also
affected by the frequency of bottle use per week and the
frequency of bottle refilling per day. Generally speaking,
more frequent bottle refilling was associated with higher
levels of contamination. Possible reasons include that
each time people refill the bottle, the bottle might touch
a dispenser or have it drip onto the outside of a bottle,
providing a good source of moisture and nutrients for the
growth of microorganisms. A bottle owner's hands could
also be a source of contamination. Even if people wash
their hands on a regular basis, these uncleaned surfaces may
potentially re-contaminate hands and thus cause health
issues, especially with use of those bottles with a straw
or nozzle that require touching the drinking surface with
fingers in order to open and close it.

400

Food Protection Trends November/December

Moreover, the results obtained for bottle usage behaviors
show that the interior cleanliness of water bottles is affected
by different types of beverage. Bottles that had beverages
such as coffee/tea and soda in the past seven days were
found to be more contaminated than bottles that had only
water. This might be partially due to the fact that coffee and
tea leave residues that are hard to remove from food-contact
surfaces, and that soda contains sugar, which cannot be
removed easily by rinsing. Although studies have shown
that caffeine at high or low concentrations was effective at
inhibiting several strains of bacteria (1, 28), the sugar and
cream that may be added to coffee and tea could provide
nutrients for bacterial growth. A study that tested microbial
contamination in unfinished beverages, including coffee
with milk, green tea, apple juice drinks, and carbonated
drinks, found that pH, temperature, additives or ingredients
(such as carbon dioxide) are important for microbial
growth in beverages. The same study found that unfinished
beverages support microbial growth and can contain
foodborne pathogens and bacterial toxins (39). Bacterial
cells are more likely to adhere to and interact with surfaces
that are improperly cleaned and sanitized (5). It is possible
that residual nutrients are the cause of the attachment by
sugar and other additives. Moreover, coliform bacteria
are normal inhabitants of plant material such as tea leaves
(43). If tea is brewed at inadequate temperatures, or if it is
stored for too long or in an improperly cleaned container,
coliform bacteria may grow in it. In addition, bacteria grow
most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40°F and
140°F, doubling in number in as little as 20 minutes (34). It
could be that the temperature of slowly cooling coffee/tea
could encourage bacterial growth. Therefore water bottles
which had coffee/tea/soda/energy drinks inside may have
been more susceptible to microbial contamination.
More than half (51.11%) of the respondents indicated
that they shared their bottles with others, a possible
cross-contamination risk. Researchers have suggested that
hundreds of bacteria species (around 700) exist in the
human oral cavity (8, 23). Harmful bacteria from saliva
will reproduce inside the bottle. When taking a drink,
reflux can occur into the liquid in the bottle, which is also
known as "backwash." Saliva not only provides the bacteria
for transmission but may also provide nutrients allowing
the microorganisms to multiply. In the possibility of virus
transmission from saliva means that sharing water bottles
with someone else could potentially lead to health issues.
When the impact of people's cleaning behavior on
the interior bioburden of water bottles was examined, it
appeared that whether or not people rinsed/washed their
water bottles affected the contamination level. However,
factors such as cleaning frequency, last time of cleaning,
cleaning method, and whether behavior changed during
illness when sick were not predictive of contamination
levels. There are some possible explanations regarding



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 451
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 453
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 457
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 461
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 463
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 467
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 486
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 531
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 539
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 540
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover4
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