Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405

aerobic, coliform, and E. coli counts separately across trim
type, using PROC GLM on the Statistical Analysis Software
(SAS version 9.4; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Means were
separated with the LSD statement. Correlation coefficients
between surface fat content and aerobic plate counts were
estimated via PROC CORR on SAS. All differences were
deemed significant at a 1% probability level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This study sought to determine the impact of carcass
anatomical location on the microbiological profile of
beef trimmings destined for ground beef production, as
approximated by the load of bacterial indicators - aerobic
plate counts (AC), coliform counts (CC), and generic E.
coli counts (EC).
Overall, trimmings derived from the chuck (shoulder
area of the carcass) and containing between 24 and 30%
surface fat (determined visually by experienced plant
personnel) had significantly higher AC than heel, shank, or
sparse lean trimmings (Table 1). Regardless of the carcass
location, the AC values estimated in this study were low,
ranging from 1.23 to 2.00 log10CFU/cm2, and are likely the
result of hygienic and sanitary practices correctly designed
and implemented in the fabrication facility (1, 15). Chuck
trimmings had significantly higher AC than other trim
types, by a difference of < 0.50 log10 CFU/cm2 (result from
LSD mean separation test). Such differences may not have
practical implications for food safety and quality (11, 14).
These differences typically reflect the natural variability
in the microbial concentration of the trimmings and the

inherent variations in the quantification method. Published
results, such as those from the USDA-FSIS national survey
of trim produced under federal inspection (17) show that
the average aerobic plate counts for 1,707 samples was 4.71
log10 CFU/g, while Bosilevac et al. (3) estimated a mean
level of 2.5 log10 CFU/g for 486 trim samples collected
domestically. Although these values cannot be directly
compared to ours because of methodological differences,
the results of our study indicate that different carcass
locations with varying surface fat levels do not negatively
impact the aerobic bacteria counts on beef trimmings.
All CC and EC were under the limit of quantification for
the detection assay, i.e., under 10 CFU/cm2. Results from
the USDA-FSIS national survey of trim produced under
federal inspection (17) show that the average CC for 721
positive samples was 3.2 log10 CFU/g, and Bosilevac et
al. (3) reported a mean coliform count for 377 samples of
domestic trim to be 1.6 CFU/g. The greatest application
of coliform counts is for assessing the overall quality of
the food and the hygienic conditions present during food
production since coliform bacteria are not resistant to
sanitizers (11). Generic E. coli (biotype I) is expected to
be present to some degree in raw foods, because these
organisms can grow in a variety of extra-intestinal niches,
including the processing environment, and do not strictly
reflect fecal contamination (11). National survey data
showed an average of 1.9 log10 CFU/g for 270 positive
samples (17), and Bosilevac et al. (3) reported a mean
concentration of 1.2 log10 CFU/g for 377 positive samples
collected domestically, demonstrating that beef trim carries

TABLE 1. Microbiological profile of beef trimmings collected at a large Midwestern U.S.
fabrication facility over a five-month period

Type of trimming

Carcass location

Approximate
surface fat
content (%)

Concentration of microbiological indicators
(Mean ± SD log10CFU/cm2)1
Aerobic counts

Coliform counts

E. coli counts

Chuck

Shoulders

24-30

2.00 ± 0.75a

ND2

ND

Heel

Outside Round

5-10

1.24 ± 0.74b

ND

ND

Shank

Fore and hind shanks

5-10

1.23 ± 0.83b

ND

ND

Sparse Lean

Navel, plate (ribs), and flank

> 70

1.43 ± 0.75b

ND

ND

Average of five replications; SD represents the standard deviation of the mean.
Within columns, values with different letter superscripts are significantly different at a 1% probability level.
2
ND: under quantification limit of 10 CFU/cm2.
1

a, b

November/December Food Protection Trends

405



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 451
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 454
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 457
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 464
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 468
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 471
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 473
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 475
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 477
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 479
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 481
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 485
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 486
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 488
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 505
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 506
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 507
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 510
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 513
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 530
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 531
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 539
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 540
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
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