Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407

the same hypothesis as Kotula et al. (12), Scanga et al.
(16) reported that as the fat content of beef trimmings
increased, the aerobic counts also increased, with 30%
fat trimmings having the highest aerobic bacteria counts,
compared with 10, 20, or 50%; however, there were no
significant differences in total coliform, generic E. coli, or
Staphylococcus aureus counts across fat percentages. When
the samples were collected via a combo-bin purge, there
were no significant differences among microbial indicator
counts across any values for fat content of the samples.
The concentration of background organisms in trim
may vary because of the effectiveness of sanitary hide
removal, processing interventions, and adequate cold
chain management (4). In this study, production shift -
morning, midday, or evening - did not significantly affect
the load and distribution of aerobic counts (Fig. 1). This
demonstrates highly consistent hygienic practices during
production, and/or may indicate that the microbiological
quality of the incoming carcasses used for fabrication is
consistent. Although non-significant, there was a slight
tendency for numbers of aerobic bacteria to be lower during
the midday shift. There was no clear tendency for the
distribution of CC and EC, and given that all counts were
under the limit of quantification, it would be impossible to
make inferences about those values.
Finally, we attempted to determine the linear relationship
between the visually estimated surface fat content (min-

imum and maximum values of the range for chuck, heel,
and shank, and a set value of 70% for sparse lean) and the
concentration of aerobic plate counts. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.044 to 0.057, indicating that surface
fat content may be an extremely poor predictor of the load
of aerobic bacteria on beef trimmings, if a linear relationship
between the two variables is assumed.
CONCLUSIONS
The carcass anatomical location does not significantly
affect the surface microbiological profiles of beef trimmings
destined for ground beef production, as indicated by the
load of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and generic E. coli.
The overall differences observed in this study, even when
statistically significant, are too small to be likely to have an
impact on food safety or quality. Not surprisingly, surface
fat content (used as a proxy for carcass location) was found
to be an extremely poor predictor of the concentration of
aerobic bacteria on beef trimmings. In establishments with
adequate and strict sanitation, cold chain, and fabrication
practices in place, and with adequate standards of the
hygienic status of incoming carcasses, the location of the
trimmings, even with varying surface fat contents, does
not influence their microbiological status and should not
negatively impact the safety or quality of the resulting
ground beef and ground beef products.

REFERENCES
1. American Meat Science Association
(AMSA). 1999. The Role of Microbiological
Testing in Beef Food Safety Programs.
Available at: http://www.meatscience.org/
docs/default-source/publications-resources/
white-papers/the-role-of-microbiologicaltesting-in-beef-food-safety-programs.
pdf?sfvrsn=0. Accessed on 28 February 2017.
2. Berry, B. W., L. H. Wells, H. R. Cross, B. S.
Emswiler, and H. D. Muse. 1980. Shelf life
characteristics and aerobic plate counts of
ground beef as influenced by fat level and fat
source. J. Food Prot. 43:713-716.
3. Bosilevac, J. M., M. N. Guerini, D. M. BrichtaHarhay, T. M. Arthur, and M. Koohmaraie.
2007. Microbiological characterization of
imported and domestic beef trim used for
ground beef. J. Food Prot. 70:440-449.
4. Bosilevac, J. M., N. Kalchayanand, J. W.
Schmidt, S. D. Shackelford, T. L. Wheeler,
and M. L Koohmaraie. 2010. Inoculation of
beef with low concentrations of Escherichia
coli O157:H7 and examination of factors
that interfere with its detection by culture
isolation and rapid methods. J. Food Prot.
73:2180-2188.
5. Carney, E., S. B. O'Brien, J. J. Sheridan,
D. A. McDowell, I. S. Blairb, and G. Duffy.
2006. Prevalence and level of Escherichia
coli O157 on beef trimmings, carcasses and
boned head meat at a beef slaughter plant.
Food Microbiol. 22:52-59.

6. Consortium of Food Process Validation
Experts (CFPVE). 2013. Validation of
antimicrobial interventions for small and very
small processors, a how-to guide to develop
and conduct validations. Food Prot. Trends
33:95-104.
7. Eisel, W. G., R. H. Linton, and P. M. Muriana.
1997. A survey of microbial levels for
incoming raw beef, environmental sources,
and ground beef in a red meat processing
plant. Food Microbiol. 14:273-282.
8. Gill, C. O., and J. C. McGuinnis. 2000.
Contamination of beef trimmings with
Escherichia coli during a carcass breaking
process. Food Res. Int. 33:125-130.
9. Health Canada-Bureau of Microbial
Hazards. 2012. Guidance Document on
E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:NM in
Raw Beef. Available at: http://www.gftc.ca/
knowledge-library/file.aspx?id=360d45f174c8-4085-9595-11ba90d7c71e. Accessed 24
February 2017.
10. Hill, W. E., R. Suhalim, H. C. Richter,
C. R. Smith, A. W. Buschow, and M.
Samadpour. 2011. Polymerase chain
reaction screening for Salmonella and
enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on beef
products in processing establishments.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 8:1045-1053.

11. Kornacki, J. L., J. B. Gurtler, and B. A.
Stawick. 2015. Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms,
and Escherichia coli as quality and safety
indicators, p. 103-120. In Salfinger, Y. and M.
L. Tortorello (ed), Compendium of Methods
for the Microbiological Examination
of Foods. Fifth Edition. APHA Press,
Washington, D.C.
12. Kotula, A. W., B. S. Emswiler-Rose, and
B. W. Berry. 1987. Microbial counts of
selected hot-boned primals and ground beef.
J. Food Prot. 50:915-919.
13. Prasai, R. K., R. E. Campbell, L. R. Vogt,
C. L. Kastner, and D. Y. C. Fung. 1995. Hotfat trimming effects on the microbiological
quality of beef carcasses and subprimals.
J. Food Prot. 58:900-992.
14. Ryser, E. T., and J. D. Shuman. 2015.
Mesophilic aerobic plate count, p. 95-101.
In Salfinger, Y., and M. L. Tortorello
(ed), Compendium of Methods for the
Microbiological Examination of Foods. Fifth
Edition. APHA Press, Washington, D.C.
15. Saini, P. K., H. M. Marks, M. S. Dreyfuss,
P. Evans, L. V. Cook Jr., and U. Dessai. 2011.
Indicator organisms in meat and poultry
slaughter operations: their potential use in
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http://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/white-papers/the-role-of-microbiological-testing-in-beef-food-safety-programs.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/white-papers/the-role-of-microbiological-testing-in-beef-food-safety-programs.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/white-papers/the-role-of-microbiological-testing-in-beef-food-safety-programs.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/white-papers/the-role-of-microbiological-testing-in-beef-food-safety-programs.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-source/publications-resources/white-papers/the-role-of-microbiological-testing-in-beef-food-safety-programs.pdf?sfvrsn=0 http://www.gftc.ca/knowledge-library/file.aspx?id=360d45f1- 74c8-4085-9595-11ba90d7c71e http://www.gftc.ca/knowledge-library/file.aspx?id=360d45f1- 74c8-4085-9595-11ba90d7c71e http://www.gftc.ca/knowledge-library/file.aspx?id=360d45f1- 74c8-4085-9595-11ba90d7c71e

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover4
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