Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 409

Evann L. Dufort,1 Mark R. Etzel1 and
Barbara H. Ingham1*
Dept. of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1605 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA

1

PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE
Food Protection Trends, Vol 37, No. 6, p. 409-418
Copyright© 2017, International Association for Food Protection
6200 Aurora Ave., Suite 200W, Des Moines, IA 50322-2864

Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log
Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella
enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified
Tomato-based Foods
ABSTRACT
Under 21 Code of Federal Regulations Part 114, manufacturers of acidified canned foods must apply a process
that ensures destruction of pertinent vegetative bacterial
pathogens and spoilage organisms. We used nonlinear
(Weibull) modeling to calculate thermal processing parameters sufficient to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7,
Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica in tomato
purée at 54°C. Inoculum (1 ml of a 5-strain single pathogen cocktail) was heated in 99 ml tomato purée at pH
4.50 (unacidified) or in purée acidified to pH 3.80 or 4.20
by use of acetic or citric acid. D54°C ranged from 20.85 min
for E. coli O157:H7 in purée at pH 4.5; as well as 0.63
min for S. enterica in purée acidified to pH 3.8 by addition
of acetic acid. Acetic acid was significantly more effective
than citric acid in ensuring pathogen inactivation (P <
0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was significantly more heat- and
acid-resistant than S. enterica and L. monocytogenes in
tomato purée at pH 4.5, as well as in purée acidified
to pH 4.2 by addition of citric or acetic acid (P < 0.05).
L. monocytogenes was the most heat- and acid-resistant in
purée acidified to pH 3.8 by addition of acetic acid, but in
purée acidified to pH 3.8 with citric acid, there was no dif-

ference in the rate of pathogen inactivation. Extrapolating
5-log pathogen reduction times to relevant processing temperatures, E. coli O157:H7 was the most heat resistant
at < 65°C (149°F), while L. monocytogenes was most heat
resistant at temperatures above 65°C. Using a calculated
z-value of 13.3°F (7.4°C) and F-value of 0.51 min at 160°F
(71.1°C), time/temperature combinations to achieve a
minimum 5-log pathogen reduction in tomato purée, pH ≤
4.5, ranged from 13.83 min at 141°F (60.6°C) to 0.02
min at 180°F (82.2°C). Results can be used to inform
development of scheduled processes and to support FDA
process filings for tomato-based acidified foods.

INTRODUCTION
From January 2008 to October 2012, 1,693 new acidified
tomato-based products were introduced into the United
States market, including salsas, pasta sauces, and other table
sauces. Consumer demand of these products is projected to
increase and to prompt continued growth of this category
(13). Regulations require that acidified foods be thermally
processed to an extent sufficient to destroy the vegetative
cells of microorganisms of public health significance and
those of non-health significance capable of reproducing in

*Author for correspondence: Telephone: +1 608.263.7383; Fax: +1 608.262.6872; E-mail: bhingham@wisc.edu

November/December Food Protection Trends

409


http://www.foodprotection.org/files/food-protection-trends/nov-dec-17-dufort.pdf http://www.foodprotection.org/files/food-protection-trends/nov-dec-17-dufort.pdf

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
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