Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424

TABLE 2. Reduction in Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli in the confirmatory experiment by
using median regression model. There were three sampling techniques (highest
counts in the main study, A, B and D), two sampling times (2 and 24 h), and
one inoculum level (104). The regression coefficients described the change in
log10 CFU per cm2 for either Enterobacteriaceae or E. coli as an explanatory
variable changed by one unit, the other variables being held constant. Baseline
levels for the categorical variables were sampling technique A and 2 h period
between inoculation and sampling.

Variable

Enterobacteriaceae (log10)
Coefficient (95% CI)

P-value

E. coli (log10)
Coefficient (95% CI)

P-value

Time = 2 hours
Destructive method (A)

0.00 (-)1

-

0.00 (-)2

-

Gauze cloth swab (B)

-1.07 (-1.55/-0.58)

< 0.001

-0.29 (-0.39-0.19)

< 0.001

Sponge-stick (D)

-0.79 (-1.78/-0.20)

0.01

-0.19 (-0.42-0.04)

0.11

Time = 24 hours
Destructive method (A)

0.00 (-)3

-

0.00 (-)4

-

Gauze cloth swab (B)

-0.44 (-1.16/-0.28)

0.21

-0.15 (-0.36-.0.05)

0.14

Sponge-stick (D)

-0.44 (-1.11/-0.28)

0.21

-0.14 (-0.35-.0.05)

0.14

Enterobacteriaceae median recovered by destructive method after 2 h: 0.56 log CFU/cm2 and
2
after 24 h: -0.16 log CFU/cm2.
3
E. coli median recovered by destructive method after 2 h: 0.08 log CFU/cm2 and 4) after 24 h:-0.70 log CFU/cm2.
1

time (P = 0.30) were of lesser importance. Corresponding
numbers for E. coli were for inoculum (P < 0.001), sampling
technique (P = 0.52), and sampling time (P = 0.25). There
were no significant differences between the results at 2 h and
12 h for either Enterobacteriaceae or E. coli, nor between 12 h
and 24 h. Sampling at 12 h was therefore not included in the
main experiment. No interaction effects were found. The initial inoculation level was 2.1 log CFU/cm2 in the main study
and 2.2 log CFU/cm2 in the confirmatory study.
In the main study, the destructive sampling method (A)
with a circular excision of 5 cm2 area resulted in higher
mean recovery of Enterobacteriaceae than the swabbing
techniques, with the exception of the gauze cloth swab (B),
both before and after chilling (P < 0.05 by ANOVA) (Fig.
3). The numbers obtained using the destructive method (A)
2 h after inoculation was taken as the reference level (Table
1 and Table 2). The coefficients in the regression equation
quantify the expected change in Enterobacteriaceae/E. coli
log per cm2 from the changes in the explanatory variables;
sampling techniques (B-E) and period after inoculation

424

Food Protection Trends November/December

(24 h) (Table 1 and Table 2). In the confirmatory study, the
destructive sampling method (A) gave a higher recovery
of Enterobacteriaceae than either the gauze cloth swab
method (B) or the sponge-stick (D) method, both before
and after chilling (P < 0.05 by ANOVA) (Fig. 4). Swabbing
before chilling (2 h after inoculation) with a gauze cloth
(B) and sponge-stick (D) resulted in the second highest
Enterobacteriaceae numbers in both the main study and
confirmatory study, with a median that was 0.5 log/cm2
lower than that of the destructive method. Sponge swab
(C) resulted in a median value that was 0.7 log/cm2 lower
than that from excision (A), and the wet-dry double-swab
technique (E) had 0.8 log/cm2 lower median than excision
(A) and its median was lower than that of all the other
techniques (P < 0.05). The recovery of Enterobacteriaceae
was lower for all techniques when sampling was carried
out after chilling rather than before (P < 0.05). All the
non-destructive methods had lower median recoveries of
Enterobacteriaceae than the destructive method, by 0.1 - 0.2
log/cm2 (P < 0.05).



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 451
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 455
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 464
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 468
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 472
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 473
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 475
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 476
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 477
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 478
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 479
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 480
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 481
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 482
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 483
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 484
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 485
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 486
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 487
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 488
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 489
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 490
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 491
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 492
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 494
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 496
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 498
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 499
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 500
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 501
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 502
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 503
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 504
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 505
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 506
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 507
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 508
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 509
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 510
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 511
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 512
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 513
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 514
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 515
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 517
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 518
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 519
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 521
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 523
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Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 529
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 530
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 531
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 539
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 540
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
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