Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427

analyses. In their study, Gallina et al. found that the excision
method was superior to swabbing methods at recovering
total viable counts from all species (19). However, sponge
swabbing on cattle, pigs and small ruminants resulted in
microbial recoveries that were very similar to those obtained
using the excision method (19).
Bolton, like Hutchinson et al., comments that a quantitative conversion factor between excision and swabbing has not
been established (4, 24), probably due to the many sources
of variation in swabbing data. Nevertheless, some studies
have attempted to calculate the relationship in different ways.
Edmonds claims that the recovery efficiencies of swabbing
with different materials compared with excision vary widely,
from 20% to 90% (14), and Pepperell et al. states that values
can even vary from 2 to 100% (35). Ghafir and Daube found
a recovery of 36% for E. coli for swabbing pig carcasses (600
cm2) compared with the destructive method (20 cm2), using
log CFU/cm2 in the calculation (20). Gallina et al. (19)
referred to the Italian ministry of Health (38), which states
that non-destructive methods recover 20% of the bacteria
compared with the destructive method. The European microbiological criteria (17) define microbial limits of "m" and
"M" for the destructive method, and m = 1.5/M = 2.5 log
CFU/cm2 Enterobacteriaceae is converted to m = 0.8/M = 1.8
log CFU/cm2 for non-destructive techniques when calculating 20% of the CFU/cm2 counts (note: not log-transformed
units). Gallina et al. found the CFU recovered by swabbing
was generally greater than 20% of the excision value, based on
median results (19). In our study, swabbing with gauze cloth
corresponded to a recovery of 28% for Enterobacteriaceae
counts (CFU/cm2) compared with the destructive method,
while the sponge stick had a recovery of 29%, sponge swab
8%, and wet-dry double swab 1%. All swab techniques had,
on average, 17% of the recovery of the destructive method on
warm meat samples. Although it is difficult to ascertain and
standardize a conversion factor, the Italian conversion factor
of 20% is similar to that observed with our results.
Growth of microorganisms during chilling is inhibited
by the low temperatures and dry meat surfaces. Our results
show that sampling warm meat provides higher recovery
of bacteria, and thus we assume that sampling from warm
carcasses provides a better overview of the slaughter hygiene
at an abattoir than samples from chilled carcasses. Samples
from chilled carcasses, however, may offer more information
about the post-slaughter and chilling processes. These will
vary between different slaughterhouses, depending on factors
such as air velocity, temperature, and relative humidity (5, 6).
The US approach and the techniques used in Denmark and
Norway involve sampling from chilled carcasses (9, 10, 33).
A major advantage of sampling chilled carcasses is that there
are fewer time constraints, so the operator has more time
to conduct the sampling appropriately. Blast chilling of pig
carcasses is reported to reduce E. coli numbers by 1 log (28).
Ware et al. found that sampling by excision achieved a higher

recovery after 24 h at 7°C than sampling with a sponge swab,
because of bacterial attachment in the intervening period and
therefore a reduction in the efficacy of swabbing (39). In our
study also, recovery using swabbing techniques, compared
with that using the destructive method, was slightly reduced,
from 17% to 14%, after chilling. This might be the effect of
bacterial attachment to the meat.
Chilled carcasses are further along on the meat value
chain towards the consumer than warm carcasses, and thus
the results from sampling may be of greater public health
significance. However, some abattoirs perform cutting and
deboning of warm carcasses immediately after slaughter (hot
boning), and sampling of chilled carcasses is therefore not
possible. Investigations of chilled carcasses also require the
use of analyses that take into account that Enterobacteriaceae
and E. coli are stressed and need resuscitation. The use of
non-selective medium (tryptone soya agar) in microbial
analyses of these bacteria (31, 32) has been recommended
for the recovery of stressed Enterobacteriaceae (12, 27). One
advantage of the NMKL125 method (Nordic Committee on
Food Analysis) is the inclusion of a resuscitation step in nonselective medium for stressed or sub-lethally injured bacteria
(32). This, together with the low incubation temperature
(37°C as opposed to 41.5 or 44°C) used for SimPlate, will
also contribute to recovery of injured bacteria (23).
The choice of hygiene indicator is another important
consideration. A quantitative bacterial indicator to be used
in a process monitoring method needs to provide results
that can be enumerated for a considerable proportion of
carcasses; at least 80% positive tests have been recommended (21). Our experiments used high inocula to ensure that
the results obtained could be interpreted, but this does not
reflect the "real life" situation should these methods be used
on routinely sampled cattle carcasses, where the contamination on many carcasses will be below the limit of detection.
Thus, E. coli that is at a lower prevalence and concentration
on carcasses will be a less suitable indicator for this purpose
than Enterobacteriaceae.
Although the destructive method gives a higher recovery, swab sampling, especially using gauze cloth, is easier
and quicker to use and has the highest recovery, after the
destructive method. This sampling technique was therefore
chosen as the method to be used for the subsequent baseline studies in European abattoirs.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Funding: This work is published as part of the Hygenea
project and was supported by the Norwegian Research
Council, grant no. 244493/E50. The participating abattoirs
are acknowledged for their valuable contributions.

November/December Food Protection Trends

427



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017

The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
IAFP 2017 In Review
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 385
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 386
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 387
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 388
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 389
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 390
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 391
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - The Cleanliness of Resusable Water Bottles: How Contamination Levels are Affected by Bottle Usage and Cleaning Behaviors of Bottle Owners
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 393
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 394
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 395
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 396
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 397
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 398
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 399
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 400
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 401
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 402
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Impact of Carcass Anatomical Location on the Microbiological Profile of Beef Trimmings
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 404
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 405
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 406
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 407
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 408
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Thermal Processing Parameters to Ensure a 5-log Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Acidified Tomato-based Foods
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 410
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 411
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 412
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 413
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 414
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 415
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 416
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 417
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 418
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Sampling Techniques for Microbiological Quantification on Carcass Services
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 420
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 421
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 422
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 423
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 424
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 425
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 426
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 427
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 428
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 429
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Effect-based Analytics for Toxicological Screening - Concepts for Future Developments
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 431
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 432
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 433
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 434
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 435
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 436
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 437
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Beyond the Bio - John Luchansky
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 439
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 440
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - PDF Highlight - Food Chemical Hazards and Food Allergy PDG
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 442
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 443
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 444
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - IAFP 2017 In Review
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 446
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 447
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 448
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 449
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 450
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 451
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 452
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 453
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 454
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 455
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 456
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 457
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 458
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 459
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 460
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 461
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 462
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 463
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 464
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 465
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 466
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 467
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 468
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 469
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 470
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 471
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 472
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 473
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 474
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 475
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 476
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 477
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 478
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 479
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 480
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 481
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 482
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 483
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 484
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 485
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 486
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 487
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 488
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 489
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 490
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 491
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 492
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 493
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 494
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 495
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 496
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 497
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 498
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 499
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 500
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 501
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 502
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 503
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 504
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 505
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 506
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 507
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 508
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 509
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 510
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 511
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 512
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 513
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 514
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 515
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 516
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 517
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 518
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 519
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 520
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 521
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 522
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 523
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 524
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 525
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 526
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 527
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 528
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 529
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 530
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 531
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 532
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 533
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 535
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 536
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 537
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 538
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 539
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 540
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 541
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 542
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - 543
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - November/December 2017 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com