Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13

TABLE 1. Frequency of food thermometer use by current users

Current users
(n = 173)

Always

Usually

Occasionally

Rarely

100%

70-99%

40-69%

< 39%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

60

35

55

32

42

24

16

9

liable because of social desirability bias (19). Consumers'
self-reported practices have also been shown to be different
when compared to their observed behavior (2, 9).
Analysis
Data collected was exported to Microsoft Excel 2011
for Mac (Seattle, WA, USA) for data analysis. Much of the
analysis consisted of percentages of the whole participant
population or subpopulations of participants.
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed
to identify significance of various factors in the study. All
ANOVA tests were achieved using JMP Pro 12 software
(SAS, Cary NC, USA). Significance for this study was defined as P < 0.05, or 95% confidence. Because of differences
in number of participants per school, Tukey-Kramer Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests were completed as
post-hoc tests to further detect significance among multiple
subgroups within a variable.
RESULTS
Assessment survey
A total of 524 participants completed the pre-assessment.
When asked about food thermometer usage, 33% of participants reported that they use a food thermometer when
they cooked meat, and 67% of participants responded that
they do not. Frequency of food thermometer usage by those
who already use them (n = 173) is summarized in Table 1.
When viewed by location, a significantly greater proportion
of people reported using food thermometers at KSU than at
VT, UNL, and TAMU (Fig. 5). KSU also had a significantly
greater proportion of current food thermometer users than
the average among all participants, while VT and TAMU
showed a significantly lower proportion of current food
thermometer users than the participant average.
Additional data was collected from the subset of the
initial sample that reported using food thermometers
when cooking meat (n = 173). Commodities that the food
thermometers were used on varied (Table 2), with the three
most frequently reported being beef, pork, and chicken.
Other products included fish, turkey, eggs, and other

(unspecified). Tailgaters chose all applicable commodities
on which they use thermometers, so that the number of
responses exceeded the number (173) of participants.
Table 2 also summarizes the location's effect on the type
of meat that the food thermometer was being used on. At
all 5 universities, the majority of people (> 50%) reported
using their food thermometers on beef and pork, and at 4
of the 5 universities, the majority reported use on chicken.
No school had the majority of its respondents using food
thermometers on fish, turkey, or eggs.
Follow-up survey
Data collectors from all universities located a total of 39
participants to which to administer the follow-up survey.
Of this population, 56% of participants were observed
using their food thermometers correctly, as determined
by the volunteer, 8% were observed using the food
thermometer incorrectly, and 35.90% were observed not
using their food thermometer. The breakdown of use at
each study location is shown in Fig. 6.
All participants were asked what types of meats they
use their food thermometers on. The foods included,
in order of frequency of being reported, were beef
(64%), pork (54%), chicken (46%), fish (10%), turkey
(5%), eggs (3%), and other (3%). Frequency of food
thermometer use after intervention is summarized in
Table 3; when frequency was tested against correct use,
the proportion of people who use food thermometers
and report using them more than 40% of the time is
significantly greater than the proportion of people who
use a food thermometer and report using it only rarely.
The number of people located per school was not
consistent; therefore the data could not be analyzed for
the significance of the effect of location on the results
of the intervention.
Limitations
This project aimed to provide representative data
for people grilling at university football games, but
certain limitations should be taken into account with

January/February Food Protection Trends

13



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com