Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20

TABLE 1. Dietary standards and guidelines for heavy metals in molluscs
Heavy metal

Dietary standards/guidelines

Reference

As (inorganic)

1 mg kg-1 (ML)

FSC Standard 1.4.1 (Schedule 19) (12)

Cd

2 mg kg-1 (ML)

FSC Standard 1.4.1 (Schedule 19) (12)

Pb

2 mg kg-1 (ML)

FSC Standard 1.4.1 (Schedule 19) (12)

Hg

0.5 (mean) 1 (ML)

FSC Standard 1.4.1 (Schedule 19) (12)

Cu

0.5 mg kg-1 bw day-1 PMTDI

JECFA (16)

Se

0.0125 mg kg-1 bw day-1 TL

FSANZ (10)

Zn

1 mg kg-1 bw day-1 TL

FSANZ (10)

Maximum limit (ML); Body weight (bw); Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI);
Tolerable Limit (TL), Food Standards Code (FSC); Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Additives (JECFA); Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ).

Turnbull (27), which included data from the current study,
suggested that this percentage was appropriate for oysters
(0.23-8.7%) and mussels (0.8-7.3%). Based on the low
percentage of inorganic As to total As in seafood, total As
concentrations were used to determine whether further
testing for inorganic As was required between 2005 and
2014. The 10% guidance level was used to determine
which samples were tested for inorganic As (i.e., as the
ML for inorganic As was 1 mg kg-1, shellfish samples with
results > 10 mg kg-1 total As underwent further testing for
inorganic As).
Each sample was homogenized and freeze-dried prior to
analysis to ensure homogeneity of the metal components in
the sample. Analysis of samples between 1999 and 2008 was
performed through the laboratory contracted through the
National Residue Survey (NRS). Analyses were performed
by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS) and/or Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission
Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Samples collected during 2011
and 2014 were analyzed by the laboratory Advanced
Analytical Australia Pty. Ltd. The methods used during
2011 and 2014 were screened by ICP-OES and/or Cold
Vapor-Atomic Absorption (CVAAS).
Concentrations of inorganic As, Cd, Pb and Hg were
compared to MLs specified in Standard 1.4.1, Schedule
19 of the FSC (Table 1). As MLs were not specified in the
FSC for Cu, Se and Zn, dietary exposure assessments were
performed on the basis of internationally accepted dietary
guidelines (Table 1). For the 2+ age group population
(body weight (bw) = 70 kg), Cu, Se and Zn were expressed

20

Food Protection Trends January/February

as a percentage of their daily intake (DI) guidelines
according to:
% DI=

100
MC×C
×
(2)
DI
bw

Three levels of mollusc consumption (MC, kg day-1)
were evaluated (2): mean mollusc consumption (consumers and non-consumers (0.0005 kg day-1), and median
(0.063 kg day-1) and 90th percentile (0.146 kg day-1)
mollusc consumption for consumers only (as shellfish may be consumed in larger proportions by certain
groups, e.g., shellfish farmers and their families). In
the formula, C refers to the concentration (mg kg-1) of
each element. The use of the median concentration for
a particular contaminant is accepted as best practice for
chronic dietary exposure assessments (16). As a conservative approach, the maximum concentration for each
contaminant was also assessed.
The amount of shellfish required to exceed the DI for Cu,
Se and Zn (Table 1) was estimated according to:
Amount of shellfish to exceed DI=

DI×bw
(2)
C

where body weight for each age category was based
on 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical
Activity Survey (NNPAS) data (2), and calculations were
based on median and maximum concentrations, C, of each
metal reported. These data were used to determine how
many standard servings of seafood (adult: 150 g day-1;
children up to 6 yrs: 75g day-1 (11)) were required to



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
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Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
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Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
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Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
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Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
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Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
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