Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21

exceed an acceptable daily intake (Table 1) for different
age groups. It should be noted that the assessments did not
consider exposure from other sources of heavy metals.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All data were presented as mg kg-1 wet weight. Occasionally, sample results were reported below the limit of detection (LOD) for inorganic As (n = 2), Pb (n = 3) and Hg (n
= 71). The number of samples below LOD was higher for
Hg across all years of testing; however, maximum reported
values for Hg (0.06 mg kg-1) were considerably below the
FSC's ML of 1 mg kg-1 (mean = 0.5 mg kg-1). While the
concentration of analytical results below the LOD ranged
between 0 and the LOD, previous investigations of metal
concentrations in seafood (21) have substituted 'zero' when
results have been reported as not detectable (ND). This was
due to the lower overall contribution of seafood to the total
diet. The same approach was used in this study.
The maximum concentration of inorganic As reported
was 0.4 mg kg-1 (2002 and 2008, Fig. 2, Table 2). This was
less than the ML of 1 mg kg-1 specified in the FSC for
inorganic As in molluscs. When both total and inorganic
As were tested in samples from 2008 (n = 24), inorganic
As was approximately 4.2% of the total As concentration
(Fig. 2). The maximum reported concentration of total
As 12.01 mg kg-1 (Table 2, Fig. 2) was in samples collected
from a harvest area in Brisbane Water (Fig. 1) in 2011.
Based on the guidance ratio for inorganic to total As
(1:10), additional samples (n = 2) were tested during
2012. Concentrations of total As were less than the
maximum values reported in 2011 (1.2-1.5 mg kg-1) and
concentrations of inorganic As were < 0.05 mg kg-1.
The presence of inorganic As was low, and total As was
considered to be an appropriate screen for inorganic As.
Stewart and Turnbull (27) noted similar concentrations
for inorganic As (oysters: 0.11 mg kg-1, mussels: 0.04 mg
kg-1) and total As (oysters: 3 mg kg-1, mussels: 2.9 mg
kg-1) in a study that combined data from this report, and
data from other Australian state shellfish control agencies
(Tasmania, South Australia and Victoria). In the same
report (27), concentrations of inorganic As in saucer
scallops exceeded the ML (n = 56, median = 1.25 mg kg-1
wet weight, maximum = 4.9 mg kg-1 wet weight, n > 1 mg
kg-1 wet weight = 31). This should be a consideration for
the NSW food regulator and the shellfish industry if the
diversification of commercial aquaculture extends to the
harvest of scallops.
Reported concentrations for Cd, Pb and Hg were less than the
MLs specified for molluscs in the FSC (Table 2). Maximum Cd
concentrations were 1.37 mg kg-1, which was approximately
69% of the ML. Maximum concentrations of Hg and Pb were
approximately 6 and 18% of their respective MLs.
Where national health standards for Cu, Se and Zn in
molluscs were not available, internationally accepted di-

FIGURE 2. (A) Inorganic and (B) Total As concentrations in
shellfish tissue tested triennially in classified New South Wales
shellfish aquaculture areas (1999-2014). The ML of 1 mg kg-1
specified by the FSC for inorganic arsenic in mollusc tissue is
represented by a dashed line. Note: differing scales on y-axes.

etary guidelines were considered. Based on the median
concentration of Cu (15.7 mg kg-1), dietary exposure
estimates for consumption of shellfish were between 0.02
(general population) and 6.55% (high-level consumers)
of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (0.5 mg kg-1 bw day-1) (Table 3). For the maximum
concentration of Cu (218.42 mg kg-1), dietary exposure
estimates ranged from 0.31 to 91.11% of the PMTDI (Table
3). Across all age groups examined, between 7.6 and 16.6
standard seafood servings (median concentration, approximately 15-33 dozen oysters) and 0.5 and 1.2 standard
seafood servings (maximum concentration, approximately
1-2 dozen oysters) would have to be consumed in order
to exceed the PMTDI (Table 4). Dietary exposure assessments, based on the median concentration of Se (0.49 mg
kg-1) were estimated to be between 0.03 and 8.18% of the
tolerable limit (TL) (0.0125 mg kg-1 bw day-1) (Table 3). At
this concentration, between 6.5 and 13.3 standard servings
of seafood (approximately 7-27 dozen oysters) would have
to be consumed each day in order to exceed the TL (Table
4). Based on the maximum concentration of Se (4.1 mg
kg-1), dietary exposure was estimated to be between 0.2 and
68.4% of the TL (Table 3), which corresponded to between

January/February Food Protection Trends

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
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