Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50

groups, with the rural, unpasteurized milk consumption
group having the highest score. They are not information
seekers, but they process information with depth and have
adequate information gathering capacity. Access to information is limited by distance and infrastructure, but Internet sources are available and used. Overall, the pasteurized
milk consumers communicated in this study that they
believed that pasteurization is the safest and healthiest
choice for milk products, even though rural opportunities
and philosophies were shared by the two rural groups. As
expected, those in the rural, unpasteurized milk consumption groups communicated strong support for their choice
of milk products.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study demonstrated that major differences in milk
consumption choices are rooted in values, opportunities,
knowledge, and the desire to seek out knowledge about
the safety of milk products. Ajzen (1) believed that human
behavior is rooted in beliefs and a person's evaluation
of those beliefs, specifically their attitudes. Information
seeking and processing styles, normative modifiers on
behavior and perceived behavioral controls are tangibles
that are modifiable through education, regulation, and
the respondents' willingness to modify their behavior.
Attitudes are learned over a lifetime of experience and
are less malleable through external requests to change.
The challenge for educators and regulators is to find ways
to go beyond the teaching of information. The use and
application of information are difficult to teach to another
person who shares different values, and the consumption of
unpasteurized milk products is value based. The opportunity
to influence another person's behavior is best done by

showing the learner a different outcome - perhaps one that is
more consistent with their philosophies related to residence,
economics, health, or regulation and oversight. These are the
defining values expressed by the respondents to this study.
An example of successful food safety behavior change
was found in the Abuela Project in Washington State (2).
Grandmothers - the Abuelas - are respected members of
the Hispanic community and have influence over others. A
locally produced and popular queso fresco was made from
unpasteurized milk. Its popularity was rooted in the sensory
qualities of the product, a personal but learned value. Serious
outbreaks of disease caused by Salmonella Typhimurium DT
104 occurred in Washington State, with attribution to this
cheese. Educators, food scientists, and regulators worked
together to find an acceptable product made from pasteurized
milk that had similar flavor and texture. After they taught the
Abuelas how to make the product and asked them to teach
the method to others in their community, the incidence of
foodborne illnesses dropped dramatically. This demonstrated
that working within the value system of learners to show a
different method with a different outcome is difficult, but
possible with innovative approaches to education, industry
methods, and regulation.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors express appreciation to Pamela Schlegel,
Katie Hyland Dodson, and Janet Buffer-Pealer for their
contributions to this study. Dr. Steven Naber of the OSU
Statistical Consulting Service is acknowledged for his insight
into interpretation and assistance with the statistical analysis.
This research was funded by the USDA, National Institute of
Food and Agriculture (Grant # 40040100).

REFERENCES
1. Ajzen, I. 1991. The theory of planned
behavior. Organiz. Behav. Hum. 50:179-211.
2. Burket, E. 2010. Queso fresco: cheese with a
reputation. Food Safety News, May 17, 2010.
Available at: http://www.foodsafetynews.
com/2010/05/queso-fresco-cheese-with-areputation/. Accessed: 24 April 2017.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
2013. Food safety. Raw milk questions and
answers. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/
foodsafety/rawmilk/raw-milk-questions-andanswers.html. Accessed 28 March 2017.
4. Frewer, L. J., A. R. H. Fisher, M. Brennan,
D. Bánáti, R. Lion, R. M. Meertens, G. Rowe,
M. Siegrist, W. Verbeke, and C. M. J. L. Vereijken.
2013. Risk/benefit communication about food
-A systematic review of the literature. Crit. Rev
Food Sci. Nutr. 56:1728-1745.
5. Griffin, R. J., S. Dunwoody, and K. Neuwirth.
1999. Proposed model of the relationship
of risk information seeking and processing
to the development of preventive behaviors.
Environ Res, Sec A 80:S230-S245.

50

6. Griffin, R., K. Neuwirth, S. Dunwoody, and
J. Giese. 2004. Information sufficiency and
risk communication. Media Psychol. 6:23- 61.
7. Griffin, R. J., K. Neuwirth, J. Giese, and
S. Dunwoody. 2002. Linking the heuristicsystematic model and depth of processing.
Comm. Res. 29:705-732.
8. Katafiasz, A. R., and P. Bartlett. 2012. Motivation for unpasteurized milk consumption in Michigan, 2011. Food Prot. Trends
32:1124-128.
9. Kendall, P., A. Elsbernd, K. Sinclair,
M. Schroeder, G. Chen, V. Bergman,
V. Hillers, and L. Medeiros. 2004. Observation versus self-report: Validation of a
consumer food behavior questionnaire.
J. Food Prot. 67:2578 - 2586.
10. Kendall, P., R. Scharff, S. Baker, J. LeJeune,
J. Sofos, and L. Medeiros. 2017. Food safety
instruction improves knowledge and behavior
risk and protection factors for foodborne
illnesses in pregnant populations. Matern.
Child Health J. Available at: doi:10.1007/
s10995-017-2291-2. Accessed 20 April 2017.

Food Protection Trends January/February

11. Langer, A. J., T. Ayers, J. Grass, M. Lynch,
F. J. Angulo, and B. E. Mahon. 2012.
Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease
outbreaks, and state laws - United States,
1993-2006. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18:385-391.
12. Lynam, T., and K. Brown. 2011. Mental
models in human-environment interactions:
theory, policy implications, and methodological explorations. Ecol. Soc. 17:24-26.
13. Medeiros, L., V. Hillers, G. Chen, V. Bergmann,
P. Kendall, and M. Schroeder. 2004. Design and
development of food safety knowledge and attitude scales for consumer food safety education.
J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 104:1671-1677.
14. Medeiros, L. C., and J. T. LeJeune. 2015.
Food safety information processing and
teaching behavior of dietitians: A mental
model approach. Agriculture 5:132-154.
15. Medeiros, L. C., and J. LeJeune. 2016. Why
do consumers drink unpasteurized milk? A
preliminary mental model. Food Prot. Trends
36:428-442.


http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/05/queso-fresco-cheese-with-a-reputation/ http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/05/queso-fresco-cheese-with-a-reputation/ http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/05/queso-fresco-cheese-with-a-reputation/ http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/rawmilk/raw-milk-questions-and-answers.html http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/rawmilk/raw-milk-questions-and-answers.html http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/rawmilk/raw-milk-questions-and-answers.html

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com