Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57

TABLE 5. Respondent sanitizing footbath usage, sanitizer chemistries utilized within
footbaths, and replacement schedules (n = 8)
Respondents
Using

Replacement
Frequency by
Sanitizer Type

n

%

Footbath: Quaternary Ammonium Compound-Liquid

6

75.0

Every 2 weeks - Twice per year

Footbath: Chlorine (HOCl, OCl-)

3

37.5

Every 2 weeks - Every 3 months

Footbath: Ammonium Chloride

1

12.5

Daily

Dry QAC Crystal

5

62.5

Daily - Twice per year

Foaming Sanitizer

3

37.5

As needed

Sanitizer Typea

Some respondents indicated the use of both dry sanitizer crystal and liquid footbaths, or footbaths and foaming boot sanitizers.
Values may not sum to 100%.
a

footbaths in processed products manufacture, 7/8 establishments reported that footbaths were located at all entries
into finished product handling areas. When asked to identify
the types of footbath sanitizing agent(s) used, 75.0% (6/8)
indicated use of a liquid quaternary ammonium chloride
(QAC)-containing solution (Table 5). Three facilities reporting the use of a QAC in sanitizing footbaths also reported the
use of chlorine as a sanitizing agent in footbaths. Reported
rotation schedules in responding facilities varied from daily
to two times per year (Table 5). In contrast to footbath usage,
seven establishments reported using a foaming-type boot decontamination system or a dry antimicrobial boot decontamination system to protect against cross-contamination.
The USDA-FSIS has endorsed the use of multiple
sanitizers for employee footwear decontamination, along
with a sanitizer rotation program to help prevent microbial
pathogens from adapting to a particular sanitizer (45, 46).
More than 40% of establishments reported use of sanitizing
footbaths to control contamination by foot traffic. Multiple
respondents indicated using multiple types of sanitizers in
their facilities; QACs were the most frequently reported type
of sanitizer used by responding establishments. Suslow and
Harris (32) recommended against chlorine-type sanitizers
use because of rapid inactivation in the presence of organic
matter, recommending instead the use of iodophors or
QACs. Footbath sanitizing solutions should be maintained at
concentrations adequate to (i) inactivate microbial pathogens
on employee footwear, and (ii) prevent the footbath from
harboring microbial pathogens (25, 26). In addition to
footbath usage, several establishments (37.5%) reported
using entryway foaming systems, and 62.5% indicated use
of dry/crystalline sanitizers in addition to footbaths. Foam
disinfectants can be sprayed onto floors as employees or
equipment such as carts or forklifts enter or exit an area (25).
Dry antimicrobial floor treatments in powder or crystalline

form can be applied to floors or used in place of sanitizing
solutions in footbaths. Use of these systems is recommended
to prevent microbial pathogen transfer between different areas
of a plant as well as to prevent entry of pathogens from outside
the plant into the harvest or further processing environments.
Facility cleaning and sanitation systems, frequency, and
sanitizer usage/rotation
When asked about facility cleaning and sanitation activities
and employee responsibilities, 10.5% (2/19) of responding
establishments reported that specific employees are assigned
to facility cleaning and sanitizing duties only, while a majority
of respondents (52.6%; 10/19) reported that employees
assigned to cleaning and sanitizing duties also had production responsibilities (data not shown). More than one-fourth
(26.3%; 5/19) of responding facilities stated that employees
are responsible for cleaning and sanitizing their own workspace, while 10.5% reported use of an outside contractor for
cleaning and sanitizing (data not shown).
Figure 1 depicts frequencies of cleaning and sanitation
activities of facilities for differing surface types (e.g., food
contact surfaces, non-contact surfaces, walls/floors, etc.).
Across surface types, chlorine-type sanitizers were the most
frequently utilized sanitizer type for facilities, including
for product contact surfaces, with QAC-type sanitizers the
second most frequently utilized (Table 6). All respondents
indicated that equipment was routinely cleaned by hand,
following partial or full disassembly before cleaning and
sanitizing. Peracids (peracetate in combination with
peroctanoate) were utilized in two establishments, while
acidified sodium chlorite and hot water (180°F) were
reported to be used for surface sanitation in one facility each
(Table 6). The majority (10/19) of establishments reported
using multiple sanitizers, principally QAC and chlorine-type
sanitizers (data not shown).

January/February Food Protection Trends

57



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
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