Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59

Mikel and Newman (26) reported that QACs, chlorine,
hot water (minimum 180°F) and iodophors are most
commonly utilized in pork harvest and in the manufacture of
pork products in the U.S. These researchers recommended
facilities implement sanitizer rotation programs to prevent
microbial pathogens and/or spoilage organisms being
present in the harvest or manufacturing environment as the
result of developing sanitizer tolerance. Marriott and Gravani
(25) described chlorine sanitizers as a generally very effective
sanitizer choice when applied onto effectively cleaned
surfaces at recommended pH and concentration, although
iodophors and QACs were also described as equally useful
for microbial control.
Food safety interventions applied during pork harvest,
fabrication, and further processing
Pork harvest is initiated by animal stunning and slaughter
by exsanguination. Pearce et al. (29) observed aerobic microbe counts to be highest immediately after exsanguination,
reporting approximately 6.0 log10 CFU/cm² each on the ham,
belly, and neck. Bolton et al. (9) identified a need for sanitation of stick knives between animals and cutting out around
the stick location to prevent translocation of skin-contaminating pathogens to deeper tissues. Taormina and Dorsa (33)
recommended that knives be cleaned and dipped in hot water
(82°C; 179.6°F) for >15 sec to achieve meaningful reductions in aerobic bacteria and pathogens between carcasses. In
a typical swine slaughter process, the skin is not immediately
removed following stunning and exsanguination. The carcass
is scalded and dehaired, singed and polished/shaved, and
possibly washed prior to evisceration (44). Nonetheless,
cross-contamination of swine carcasses is still a concern,
with increases in numbers of aerobic and coliform bacteria in
carcasses that were polished before evisceration as compared
to those that were singed (29). Warriner et al. (52) demonstrated E. coli cross-contamination between pork carcasses
and between carcasses and the harvest environment. E. coli
isolated from equipment used in scraping and dry polishing
were also isolated from a band saw and a butcher's hands,
demonstrating microbe transmission through the harvest
environment during pork carcass harvest. Such evidence of
cross-contamination highlights the importance of controlling
and reducing pathogen contamination throughout slaughter.
Antimicrobial interventions are decontamination
treatments applied to reduce contamination with microbes,
including microbial pathogens. Physical interventions
applied to carcasses include hot water washing or steam
application, or knife trimming. Chemical interventions are
varied and may be applied at several points, such as preevisceration or prior to entering the cooler (23, 50). Ten
of 11 (90.9%) facilities harvesting pork, when asked about
the use of antimicrobial interventions on skin-on carcasses,
indicated that antimicrobial interventions were not utilized.
One facility affirmed the use of a hide-on antimicrobial

intervention, described as a water wash, although water
temperature and pressure/volume parameters were not
provided (data not shown). Over half (54.5%; 6/11) of
responding facilities completing pork harvest indicated using
one or multiple antimicrobial interventions to carcasses
pre-fabrication; 50% of these reported the use of an acidified
sodium chlorite (ASC) intervention, 50% a lactic acid
application, 17% a vinegar and water mixture, and 17% a
water wash (some respondents indicated use of multiple
sequential interventions).
Van Netten (51) reported achieving a 2.9 log10 CFU/cm²
reduction of S. Typhimurium on inoculated pork carcasses
by applying 2% lactic acid at 55°C for 60 sec. Epling et al.
(14) observed decreased Campylobacter and Salmonella
spp. recoveries at 5 min and 24 h post-mortem from
pork carcasses that had been sprayed with 2% lactic acid.
Rodriguez (31) examined the effects of using a sanitizing
spray system designed for Small and Very Small slaughterhouses; the system applied a 2% lactic acid solution at
55°C and achieved a 1.9 log10 CFU/100 cm2 reduction on
pork carcasses. Biemuller et al. (7) observed a 4.0 log10unit reduction in aerobic bacteria counts and decreased
S. Enteritidis prevalence on pork carcasses through use of
acetic acid sprays at pH 1.5 and 2.0. Carpenter et al. (10),
however, reported achieving reductions in Salmonella
serovars of only 0.7 log10 CFU/cm² by the application of 2%
acetic acid to inoculated pork bellies. Researchers applying
acetic:propionic (3:2) acid blends to pork carcasses
reported reductions in aerobic plate counts (APCs) from
0.8 to 1.5 log10 CFU/cm² (30). Hamilton et al. (19)
likewise reported reduced prevalence of E. coli (92.9% for
control versus 12.5% for treated carcasses) on carcasses
treated with ASC (pH 2.5 + 0.1) for 15 sec in two medium
and large Australian abattoirs.
A pork carcass may be subsequently fabricated into intact
and/or non-intact NRTE products. More than one-third
(36.4%; 4/11) of responding facilities reported performing
an antimicrobial intervention during fabrication. Three
facilities reported application of ASC, while the remaining
facility utilized lactic acid. The majority of responding
facilities (10/11; 90.9%) indicated that no antimicrobial
interventions were used on fabricated products prior
to packaging (data not shown). One facility responded
that a topical sprayed ASC intervention was applied to
fabricated products prior to chilling; intervention pH and
temperature information was, however, not provided. The
extent of microbial cross-contamination during fabrication
is a function of the extent of contamination on incoming
carcasses and raw materials, as well as the sanitary condition
of the fabrication environment (1, 3). L. monocytogenes was
recovered from equipment in a pork cutting room (50% of
sampled sites positive), with recovered isolates reportedly
capable of biofilm formation (21). Gomes-Neves et al.
(18) determined that meat cutters contribute to Salmonella

January/February Food Protection Trends

59



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
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