Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76

Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 3rd- and 4thgeneration cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone resistance
in E. coli from humans was associated with corresponding
AMC in humans, whereas resistance to fluoroquinolones
in Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from humans
was related to consumption of fluoroquinolones in animals.
Overall, the JIACRA results suggest that from a One Health
perspective, there is potential in both the human and animal
sectors to further develop prudent use of all antimicrobial
classes and thereby reduce AMR.
The AMR data collected may also be helpful when investigating the effectiveness of management measures taken or
the general impact of an AMR national/local action plan and
efforts towards the reduction of AMC and AMR in both animals and humans. To help and simplify the interpretation of
the results from the AMR monitoring, available data might be
selected or combined in indicators, which can give a general
idea of the progress of the epidemiological situation. Recently,
EFSA, ECDC and EMA jointly developed indicators that can
be used to monitor the progress of Member States towards
the reduction of AMC and AMR in both humans and foodproducing animals, based on the AMR and antimicrobial sale
data already collected by Member States and analyzed by
the three EU agencies (34). Examples of proposed indicators
to assess AMR in human medicine include the proportion of
Staphylococcus aureus that are resistant to meticillin (MRSA)
and the proportion of E. coli that are resistant to 3rd-generation
cephalosporins. These two pathogens are of major public health
importance. For veterinary medicine, an example indicator is
the proportion of commensal E. coli from food-producing
animals that are completely susceptible to all antimicrobials
tested in the harmonized panel prescribed by legislation. In
terms of AMC, some of the suggested indicators are the total
consumption of antimicrobials in humans (limited to antibacterials for systemic use) and the overall sales of veterinary antimicrobials. Notwithstanding the need to analyze the underlying
data to fully understand the epidemiological situation in the
different countries and animal species, and the limitations
that such high-level indicators may have in representing the
real situation, these are expected to constitute a useful tool
for risk managers to monitor the progress made by Member
States in these fields.
SCIENTIFIC ADVICE TO THE RISK MANAGER
Scientific advice and AMR risk assessments
EFSA is providing regulators with scientific and technical
advice on AMR, as a basis of informing related riskmanagement decisions. Over recent years, EFSA has been
consulted by the European Commission on a number of
topics and has also taken the initiative to investigate AMRrelated emerging risks and topics of particular concern
for public health and food safety. For example, scientific
opinions were adopted by the EFSA Panel on Biological
Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel) on MRSA (13), ESBL-/AmpC-

76

Food Protection Trends January/February

producing and carbapenemase-producing bacteria in foodproducing animals and food (22, 23).
MRSA first emerged in hospital environments in
the 1970s, and since then its diffusion worldwide has
increased, so that it has become a serious health problem
in hospitals. More recently, MRSA was isolated from
people in the general community who had no epidemiological connections to hospitals. In addition, strains of
MRSA associated with animals have been also identified,
from both food-producing animals and pets. In 2009,
EFSA assessed the public health significance of MRSA
in animals and foods (13). The EFSA BIOHAZ Panel
concluded that livestock-associated MRSA represented
only a small proportion of all reported MRSA infections
in the EU, with significant differences between Member
States. The assessment reviewed control options that
could be considered to minimize the risk of transfer of
food-associated and animal-associated MRSA to humans,
and concluded that since the most important routes
of transmission to humans are through direct contact
with live animals and their environments, the most
effective control options would be pre-harvest measures,
including good husbandry practices, HACCP, good
hygienic and manufacturing practices (GHP, GMP), and
possible restrictions of the movements of livestock. It also
recommended the application of basic hygienic measures
before and after contact with horses and companion animals.
In the 2000s, beta-lactamases also emerged in Gramnegative bacteria, including ESBL and AmpC, which
confer resistance to a variety of beta-lactam antimicrobials,
including penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams.
More recently, carbapenemases have also emerged,
conferring resistance to carbapenems, which are generally
used to treat serious infections caused by multidrugresistant Gram-negative bacteria. Two EFSA opinions
assessed public health risks related to ESBL-, AmpC- and
carbapenemase-producing bacteria in food-producing
animals and food, and related control options (22, 23).
The opinions highlighted that despite the fact that few
studies present clear evidence of direct transmission of
these bacteria from food-producing animals or food to
humans, the existence of common clones provide indirect
evidence of this transmission. Various control options
were identified, but in both opinions, because of a lack of
comparative efficacy and efficiency of individual measures,
their prioritization was deemed to be very difficult. The
assessment of the impact of control measures aimed
at controlling carbapenemase-producing bacteria was
particularly difficult, because of the very low expected
prevalence of those bacteria in the food chain. The EFSA
BIOHAZ Panel indicated that decreased frequency of use
of antimicrobials in animal production in the EU is of high
priority for the control of the emergence and spread of
resistance and co-resistance phenomena, and indicated that



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com