Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77

stopping the use of 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins,
or restricting their use to specific circumstances, would be
a highly effective option. Carbapenems are not licensed
for use in food-producing animals in the EU, and the
continuation of this prohibition was identified as an
effective measure to minimize the emergence and spread
of resistance to these antimicrobials from the animal
reservoir. The need for implementing strict measures
or prohibitions of off-label use of those substances was
also mentioned. Since carbapenemase-producing genes
and genes encoding resistance to certain heavy metals
such as zinc are sometimes linked, the use of compounds
containing such elements should be minimized. Together
with these options, other measures aimed at controlling the
risks of spread of those bacteria through the food chain were
discussed, such as biosecurity measures for the containment
of resistant bacteria at the farm level and during transport
of animals and products thereof, and post-harvest hygienic
and decontamination measures having effect at later stages
of the food chain. Measures aimed at minimizing the risks of
transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to humans
through pathways other than food were also considered.
As already pointed out, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in food-producing animals can lead to the emergence of AMR bacteria in animal populations, which can
contribute to an increase of the AMR problem in humans
as well. That is why, among measures taken to fight against
AMR, the European Commission developed and published Guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials
in veterinary medicine (2, 3). As a follow-up action, the
European Commission requested EFSA, jointly with EMA,
to produce a scientific opinion about measures to reduce
the use of and the need to use antimicrobials in animal
husbandry in the EU, and the resulting impacts on food
safety. The resulting scientific opinion (RONAFA Opinion)
(27) reviewed available measures and highlighted a series of
reduction strategies that have been implemented successfully in some Member States and that could be integrated
into national action plans and implemented across the EU.
These would be aimed first of all at the direct reduction of
the consumption of antimicrobials, for example by setting
targets for the reduction of their use, by increasing the responsibility and accountability of veterinarians prescribing
antimicrobials, and by limiting the use of antimicrobials to
those situations where they are absolutely needed, in particular eliminating their use for prophylactic purposes. In
addition, the RONAFA opinion recommended considering
additional measures aimed at replacing antimicrobials with
alternatives. The opinion reviewed and discussed a number
of alternatives which have been shown to yield good results
in the improvement of animal health parameters during
experimental studies, such as probiotics, bacteriophages,
organic acids, immunomodulators, teat sealants, etc. Since

some of these products are not yet commercially available
and some have shown to be promising, the opinion also
recommended giving new impetus to the scientific research
on these and other alternatives, and designing an EU legislative framework that would stimulate their development
and clarify the pathway for their approval. Finally, within
this opinion, the need to rethink the livestock production
system was discussed. Improving disease prevention and
control measures on farms would allow reducing the introduction and spread of animal diseases and contribute indirectly to reduction of the use of antimicrobials. Benchmarking between farms and prescribing veterinarians in relation
to use and prescription of antimicrobials would also allow
identifying critical situations and switching to farming
conditions that would be sustainable with reduced use of
antimicrobials. Finally, the opinion highlighted the role of
continuing education for all actors involved in animal farming and management, such as farmers and veterinarians.
The RONAFA Opinion also recommended the development of indicators suitable for monitoring and detecting
trends in the levels of key drug-resistant microorganisms in
humans, food-producing animals and food derived thereof,
and of AMC. This is another area of recent work, following
to the request by the European Commission to ECDC, EFSA
and EMA, already mentioned (34).
The use of colostrum or milk potentially containing
residues of antimicrobials is not fully harmonized within
the EU. In many Member States these products may be used
to feed calves originating from the same farm. In 2016, the
European Commission requested that EFSA also provide
scientific advice on the risk of the development of AMR due
to these feeding practices. The EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (24)
concluded that consumption of milk from cows receiving
antimicrobial treatment during lactation, and milked during
the treatment or the withdrawal period, would lead to
increased probability of fecal shedding of antimicrobialresistant bacteria by calves. A range of possible options
exists for restricting the feeding of such milk to calves,
which could target, for example, the highest-priority
critically important antimicrobials.
Resistance to polymyxins is also an important public
health issue, attention to which particularly rose after the
discovery of new horizontally transferrable resistance mechanisms to colistin, and the detection of plasmids carrying
resistance genes in food-producing animals and food thereof
(31). EFSA has provided support to EMA in reviewing
previous advice on the impact and need for colistin use for
human and animal health (26). Considering the importance
of colistin for treatment of human infections resistant to other antimicrobials, this updated advice recommended that all
countries reduce the use of polymyxins in livestock as much
as possible, and suggested target levels that could be set for
the reduction of the use of colistin in three to four years.

January/February Food Protection Trends

77



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018

Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Industry Products
Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 1
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 2
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 4
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 5
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 6
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 7
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Assessing the Usage of Food Thermometers at American University Football Tailgates
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 9
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 10
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 11
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 12
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 13
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 14
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 15
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 16
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 17
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - An Assessment of Potential Heavy Metal Contaminants in Bivalve Shellfish from Aquaculture Zones along the Coast of New South Wales, Australia
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 19
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 20
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 21
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 22
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 23
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 24
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 25
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 26
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Mental Models of Pasteurized and Unpasteurized Milk Product Consumption in the United States
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 28
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 29
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 30
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 31
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 32
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 33
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 34
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 35
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 36
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 37
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 38
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 39
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 40
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 41
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 42
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 43
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 44
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 45
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 46
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 47
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 48
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 49
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 50
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 51
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Sanitary Carcass Dressing and Food Safety Practices in South Central U.S. Small and Very Small Establishments Manufacturing Fresh and Not-Ready-to-Eat Pork Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 53
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 54
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 55
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 56
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 57
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 58
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 59
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 60
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 61
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 62
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 63
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 64
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 65
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 66
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 67
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Beyond the Bio - Joe Frank
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 69
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 70
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - PDG Highlight The Dairy Safety & Quality Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - General Interest Paper The Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in the Fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 73
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 74
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 75
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 76
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 77
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 78
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 79
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 80
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 81
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 83
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 84
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 85
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 86
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - 87
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Coming Events
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - January/February 2018 - Cover4
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