Cornerstone - Spring 2016 - (Page 38)
S T R AT E G I C A NALY S IS
Polygeneration as a Means to
Reduce Energy Poverty in Pakistan
By Irfan Ali
akistan, the world's sixth most populous country, is a
developing nation facing many challenges. Over the last
12 years regional conflicts have taken a considerable toll
on Pakistan's economy and have left the nation with a damaged and vastly neglected infrastructure. The energy sector
has been one of the most affected segments and is in desperate need of investment and revitalization. In 2012, the country,
with a population of around 178 million, produced only 80 billion kWh of electricity; compare that with the Netherlands,
which produced 115 billion kWh of electricity in 2012 for a
population of only 16.7 million people.1
With the 2013 peaceful democratic transition of government
for the first time, Pakistan is finally poised to begin providing
more opportunities for its people, including increased public
safety, stronger economic performance, better employment
opportunities, and greater access to reliable energy. Improving
energy production, utilization, and access will be the building
block on which other development objectives can be founded.
"The environment will arguably
be helped through development of
Pakistan's coal resources through a
diminished reliance on deforestationcausing biomass harvesting and
eliminated the emissions from
burning that biomass."
PAKISTAN'S ENERGY CRISIS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Pakistan has been experiencing an energy crisis for decades
and no aspect of the energy sector is untouched by this crisis.
The country relies heavily on imports for its energy supplies. In
fact, 44% of Pakistan's energy supply is currently imported-at
an annual cost of around US$15 billion.2 The utilization rate
for the existing electricity sector, which relies on oil, natural
gas, and hydro power, was less than 60% in 2012.3 This left 56
million people without access to electricity.
Natural gas is an important contributor to Pakistan's primary
energy mix, providing 32% in 2012.3 The giant Sui gas field
has historically met the majority of the country's natural gas
demand. From the time of its discovery in the early 1950s,
production from Sui drove the development of a natural
gas distribution system that now extends across the nation.
However, as the Sui reservoir depletes at an increasing rate,
there are challenges associated with expanding domestic
natural gas production.
A shopkeeper carries lanterns to his shop to keep it open
during electric load shedding.
Although the country produced 1412 billion cubic feet (bcf) of
natural gas in 2013, this fell far short of the amount needed.
Without reliable natural gas, even households with a connection to the distribution lines were forced to collect biomass to
heat their homes and cook. This led to tremendous amounts
of in-home pollution and an alarming rate of deforestation.
Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Cornerstone - Spring 2016
From the Editor: Valuing Technology Transfer
to Support the Paris Agreement
CoverStory: Fueling Increased Electricity Production in the Emerging Economies of Asia
Recognizing the U.S. Cooperative Difference
Calling All Technology Developers: XPRIZE’s US$20-Million Competition for Breakthroughs in CO2 Conversion
The Paris Agreement and 21st Century Coal
A Utility Overview of the U.S. EPA Clean Power Plan
The Importance of System Utilization and Dispatchable Low-Emissions Electricity for Deep Decarbonization
Coal’s Role in ASEAN Energy
What’s Driving India’s Coal Demand Growth
Polygeneration as a Means to Reduce Energy Poverty in Pakistan
The Future of Gasification
Application of Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion With Low-Rank Asian Coals
Oceanic Storage of CO2 by Japan and Taiwan
Cornerstone - Spring 2016