Baking & Snack - September 2015 - 99




As the industry's
understanding of dough
development expands,
bakers begin to exert more
control in the mixing bowl.
Adobe Stock

by Charlotte Atchley


The further the baking industry delves into the science
of dough development, the more control bakers can
exert over the breads, buns and rolls they make. With
the range of products diversifying from just basic white
or whole wheat bread to include artisan, flatbread and
other ethnic baked goods, this knowledge is crucial for
bakers trying to consistently turn out a wide variety of
products. Armed with intimate knowledge of how these
doughs form, bakers can ensure quality and consistency.
That quality and consistency is created, along with the
dough, in the mixer.
"The understanding of the mixing process has made
a great leap forward in the past 10 years," said Jim
Warren, vice-president, Exact Mixing, Reading Bakery
Equipment, Robesonia, PA. "As products become more
diverse and consumers more demanding, the mixing
process has become more complicated. Terms like shear
rate, hydration rate, hydration efficiency, energy input,
and a long list of others have required mixer manufacturers to look closely at their designs."
Mixing means more than just add ingredients and hit
start. With the knowledge of how different doughs develop and what they need to come out just right, mixer
suppliers have altered the design of their equipment, and
bakers have altered their mixing strategies to get the best
dough development in the most efficient way.
First, not all doughs are created equal. Various doughs
have different requirements from the mixer, whether
that's changing roller bar positions, rpm speeds or cooling needs. "Inside the mixer, you want to make sure
you're kneading and not having the dough wrap around
the roller and go for a ride," explained Damian Morabito,
president, Topos Mondial, Pottstown, PA. "You need to
create a stretch, fold and knead action with the roller bar

mixers." Creating the proper kneading action to suit the
dough being mixed requires proper bowl and agitator
Second, understanding about gas cell creation and
sustainability has changed the way bakers and mixer
suppliers view what happens in the mixing bowl. "The
importance of the gas bubbles shows itself later on in
the process, in the structure of the dough and how it
stands up to downstream processing through dividing
and rounding," said Rob Francis, chief engineer for bakery, Baker Perkins Inc., Peterborough, UK. "The more
gas bubbles you have, particularly for pan bread, the
stronger the structure, and that reflects in final product
shape, size, volume and crumb texture." Those gas cells
are created in the mixer, and by creating a better gas
cell structure in the mixing
stage, bakers can reap benefits in better processing
and final product quality.

New research into the
correlation between mixer
design and dough development has created more
efficient mixers.
AMF Bakery Systems / September 2015 Baking & Snack 99

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Baking & Snack - September 2015