People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 40

Research provides overwhelming evidence that subordinates
want to see four key characteristics in leaders: integrity,
competence, good judgment, and vision. There has virtually
never been a study showing that subordinates want charismatic managers - even when they may think they do - or that
effective managers are charismatic. On the contrary, there are
compelling findings showing that subordinates prefer bosses
who are competent, trustworthy, and unassuming.
The distinction between the behaviors that get people
noticed and the behaviors associated with effective leadership
was first highlighted by Fred Luthans' seminal research. He
gathered data on a sample of 457 managers using multiple
methods. After three years, he collected criterion data including salaries and promotions, and the performance of the units
for which the managers were responsible. Luthans found
that the high performers fell naturally into two groups: (1)
managers who received rapid promotions and pay raises; and
(2) managers whose units performed well. Membership in
the two groups correlated .30, which means they overlapped
about 10%.
Following Luthans, we call the first group Emergent and
the second group Effective. Next, Luthans determined how
the two groups spent their time at work, and not surprisingly,
they spent their time differently. Managers in the Emergent
group were primarily involved in managing up - networking,
building relationships with bosses, projecting confidence,
and playing politics. Managers in the Effective group were
primarily involved in managing down - working with their
teams to improve performance, removing barriers that impede success, managing conflict, and following through on
commitments.

There has virtually never been a
study showing that subordinates want
charismatic managers - even when
they may think they do - or that
effective managers are charismatic.
Using data from our extensive research archive, we identified the personality profiles of Emergent and Effective leaders. The Emergent profile reflects people who stand out in
groups - lively, engaging, and colorful. The Effective profile
reflects people who are concerned with getting the job done
- focused and process oriented. The high performing CEOs
in Collins' seminal book were notably modest and that fits
our profile of Effective managers. The problem is that, in our
experience, Emergence typically trumps Effectiveness, which
helps explain the 65% failure rate for managers.

Practical recommendations for HR practitioners

The preceding discussion leads to three recommendations for
creating and implementing successful HiPo identification programs. First, start with a proper definition of leadership - one
40

PEOPLE + STRATEGY

that focuses on team effectiveness, rather than the individual
career success. Leadership is about building and maintaining
high performing teams that can beat the competition -
building a team requires different skills from those needed to
master office politics and be well-regarded by one's manager.
Defining talent in terms of managerial ratings of performance
or the ability to jump levels will inevitably cause organizations
to select people who talk a lot and successfully self-promote,
without necessarily driving high performance in their teams.
Second, use quantitative assessments that are predictive
and fair. Psychologists know that well-validated measures
of personality forecast leadership behaviors far better than
human intuition, and that they account for around 50% of
the variance in leadership effectiveness. In contrast, there is
no compelling evidence showing that intuitive evaluations of
leadership potential - including the commonly used unstructured interview - can predict effective leadership. Following
this, assessment programs that use scientifically defensible
personality assessments can replace conscious and unconscious
biases, nepotism, and politics, with a merit-based system. For
example, based on actual leadership talent, women would be
expected to occupy more than 15% of board seats (Koenig,
Eagly, Mitchell, & Ristikari, 2011), yet flawed evaluations methods - and focusing on the "loud" and dominant traits that are
more common in men - contribute to a universal underrepresentation of women in leadership. In addition, charismatic
people interview well, regardless of their level of talent, and as
a result, leadership pipelines are full of hard-chargers who may
not function well in affiliative cultures.
Third, use outcome data to validate your models. Organizations today are awash with data, but often don't know
how to organize, analyze, and use it. Discussions of "big data"
and "analytics" suggest that sophisticated new techniques are
needed to reveal the magic formula for leadership potential.
However, there is no need to reinvent the wheel and much to
gain by keeping things simple. Consider the fact that the best
measures of leaders' performance - particularly how their
behavior impacts teams and their effectiveness - are rather
old school: multisource feedback or 360s (especially upward
feedback), team engagement levels, measures of team and
organizational climate. These measures can then be complemented with objective performance metrics such as productivity, revenues, profit, and customer service. Although no data
are perfect, combining a wide range of outcome variables will
help organizations benchmark their HiPos against high-performing leaders to fine-tune their models of leadership
potential. Importantly, despite the tendency to look for novel,
unique, or fad-like competencies (e.g., agility, grit, growth
mindset, and digital leadership), it is useful to remember that
the fundamental ingredients of leadership effectiveness are
unlikely to change over the next few years. Leadership evolved
over thousands of years. Although the context of work and
careers change, the qualities that enable individuals to create
higher levels of engagement and performance in a team do
not: e.g., expertise, good judgment, competence, good people-skills, self-awareness, and humility.
To conclude, there is much progress to be made in the
process of finding the right people to become the key leaders of



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1

From The Executive Editor
From The Guest Editors
Perspectives
So You Want to Be a High-Potential?
How to Identify and Grow High Potentials: A CEO’s Perspective with Proven Results
Getting the Right People in the Hi-Po Pool
Wherefore Art Thou All Our Women High-Potentials?
Are Your HiPos Overrated?
Executive Roundtable
In First Person
Linking Theory + Practice
Insight into Action
Leadership Insights
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Cover1
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Cover2
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 1
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 2
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 3
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - From The Executive Editor
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - From The Guest Editors
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 6
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 7
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Perspectives
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 9
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 10
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 11
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 12
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 13
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 14
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 15
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 16
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - So You Want to Be a High-Potential?
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 18
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 19
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 20
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 21
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - How to Identify and Grow High Potentials: A CEO’s Perspective with Proven Results
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 23
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 24
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 25
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 26
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 27
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Getting the Right People in the Hi-Po Pool
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 29
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 30
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 31
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Wherefore Art Thou All Our Women High-Potentials?
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 33
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 34
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 35
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 36
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 37
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Are Your HiPos Overrated?
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 39
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 40
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 41
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Executive Roundtable
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 43
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 44
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 45
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 46
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 47
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - In First Person
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 49
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Linking Theory + Practice
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 51
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 52
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 53
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Insight into Action
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 55
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Leadership Insights
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 57
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - 58
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Cover3
People & Strategy Winter 2018 Vol. 41 No. 1 - Cover4
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