People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 19

the major semiconductor companies. This represents a powerful first link in the chain toward achieving the very big vision.
The team switched fully into action mode as this deal came
into view, moving back into the mode of reflection with the
deal closed. The remaining links in the chain, now that much
nearer to view, are still to be envisioned and forged.

4. Dynamic Cohesion

Ignition teams are by nature stressful. They need both to
sustain intensity of focus on the immediate horizon of action,
while also staring at the painful gaps between what they know
how to do and what the ultimate goal demands of them. Most
things are harder than they look. Most things don't work.
Some things that work are the product more of luck than
skill. Faced with this, teams can lose both their heart and their
head. At an emotional level, individual team members and the
team as an organic unit need to balance passionate optimism
and resolve ("we must and will achieve the goal") with a sober,
skeptical confrontation of the current position ("we're not yet
achieving the goal and haven't addressed these gaps").
To absorb such emotional stresses, ignition teams need
to create conditions for resilience: strong mutual relationships of respect, trust, and accountability. At the same time,
they can't gloss over conflicts or fall into compromises
with one another that compromise the goal. Situations in
which there's a readily available compromise that suits the
many interests at stake and constraints in play don't require
ignition teams at all. Dynamic cohesion lives right at the
boundary between a team that splinters and a team that
allows itself to become comfortable too easily or too soon.
To accomplish this, teams need a chance to settle. Human
relationships of trust and mutual accountability require a
passage of time and experience, and changing the team too
frequently disrupts this, as Hackman notes.6 Venture capital investors often focus on the strength of bonds between
co-founders and their joint track record as the best predictor
of their ability to sustain the difficulties that are sure to come.
It's also important to balance what Chester Barnard calls

"effectiveness" (is the team progressing toward the goal?) with
"efficiency" (are the needs of the members sufficiently addressed to keep them on board?).7 This balance can feel easy
when everyone is confident the goal can be achieved. Everyone's happy to be part of a team's imminent success. Ignition
teams inevitably go through crises in which it isn't obvious
that the goal can be achieved, which threatens the willingness
of members to stay dedicated to the team and to commit
the resources-time, imagination, relationships, capital, and
so on-essential to the team's success. Ignition teams that
confront and negotiate these potential impasses stay in the
game. Those who do not can fly apart, or can become "teams
in name only," in which the members don't bring to the table
what they must in order for the ambitious goal to be achieved.
We had the privilege to be part of an ignition team that
included funders and leaders of four organizations focused
on the ambitious goal of increasing more than tenfold the
number of young Americans performing a year of service.
As we confronted the barriers standing in the way of achieving this goal, there was great temptation to make the wrong
compromise: articulating a strategy that wasn't ambitious
enough to achieve the goal or couldn't be implemented,
or making small modifications to the work of the existing
organizations and bringing funders on board for incremental investment. Instead, a small core team faced up to a hard
truth: that it would take a dramatically better-resourced
organization to have any shot at achieving this ambitious
goal, beyond what any of the four chartering members of the
alliance could plausibly achieve. This led to difficult work,
over several months, through which the organizations together came to the view that they needed to form a stronger
whole. Three of the four organizations merged to become
the Service Year Alliance, a single entity positioned to lead
the field to a new level.
The barriers to a merger were significant-commitments
to each organization's mission, concerns of their boards, and
so on-and this step forward toward the larger goal was only
possible through careful work to ensure that Chester Barnard's considerations of efficiency (could the needs of each
actor be addressed just enough, without undermining what
was needed for the new organization as a whole to be positioned for success) were addressed at each step along the way.
Mergers among non-profits are rare not because there aren't
great opportunities for mergers to advance big missions in
the social sector, but because it is so rare for a team of people
to sustain dynamic cohesion all the way from conceptualization to realization: staying together in pursuit of the big goal,
while doing the hard problem solving and hard negotiation
involved in addressing the many constraints and pitfalls along
the way.

5. Lean Out and Lean In

Ignition teams need to advance a broader system to achieve
their own goals. They need resources and knowledge they
don't have, which can only be generated in partnership with
other actors. In order to "ignite," they have to get the world
to act differently: investors, customers, legislators, judges,
journalists-whoever the key constituencies are who hold
VOLUME 41 | ISSUE 2 | SPRING 2018

19



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2

From the Executive Editor
From the Guest Editor
Perspectives
Ignition Teams: Rising to the Challenges of Innovation
Challenge Accepted: Managing Polarities to Enhance Virtual Team Effectiveness
Facilitating Trust and Communication in Virtual Teams
Building Entrepreneurial Teams: Talent, Social Capital, and Culture
Organizations That Get Teamwork Right
Team Development: The Power of Debriefing
The Rise of Digital Team Building
Executive Roundtable
In First Person
Linking Theory + Practice
Insight into Action
Leadership Insights
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Cover1
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Cover2
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 1
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 2
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 3
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - From the Executive Editor
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 5
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - From the Guest Editor
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 7
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Perspectives
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 9
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 10
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 11
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 12
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 13
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 14
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 15
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Ignition Teams: Rising to the Challenges of Innovation
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 17
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 18
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 19
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 20
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 21
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Challenge Accepted: Managing Polarities to Enhance Virtual Team Effectiveness
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 23
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 24
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 25
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 26
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 27
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 28
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 29
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Facilitating Trust and Communication in Virtual Teams
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 31
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 32
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 33
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 34
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 35
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Building Entrepreneurial Teams: Talent, Social Capital, and Culture
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 37
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 38
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 39
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 40
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 41
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Organizations That Get Teamwork Right
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 43
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 44
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 45
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Team Development: The Power of Debriefing
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 47
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 48
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 49
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 50
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 51
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - The Rise of Digital Team Building
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 53
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 54
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 55
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Executive Roundtable
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 57
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 58
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 59
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 60
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 61
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - In First Person
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 63
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 64
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 65
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Linking Theory + Practice
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 67
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 68
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 69
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Insight into Action
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 71
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Leadership Insights
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 73
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - 74
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Cover3
People & Strategy Spring 2018 Vol. 41 No. 2 - Cover4
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