ITE Journal March 2018 - 32

Dependent Variables
Yielding Behavior
The number of motorists who did and did not yield to pedestrians
in crosswalks was measured in the same way as reported in the
original study.6 Driver yielding was measured in relationship to
an objective dilemma zone (a location beyond which a driver can
easily yield if a pedestrian enters the crosswalk). This distance was
calculated using the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
signal timing formula. Motorists who had not passed the outer
boundary of the dilemma zone when a pedestrian entered the
crosswalk were scored as yielding or not yielding because they had
sufficient time and space to stop safely for the pedestrian.

Method
Participants
The participants were motorists using the road when pedestrians
were crossing in the crosswalk at a number of sites.

Site Selection
Sites were selected from several locations in south Michigan
including the city of Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids. Table 1 shows
the characteristics of each of the sites included in this study.
32

Ma rch 2018

i te j o urn al

Island or
Median

ADT

Posted
Speed

Location
Midblock refuge island or median
Monroe Midblock Allegan
2

Parking

Data were also collected comparing various configurations of the
in-street sign on drivers yielding right-of-way to pedestrians at
three sites without a pedestrian refuge island or median island.
Edge signs alone, centerline signs alone, and lane line signs alone
were all associated with increased driving yielding to pedestrians,
but a gateway made up of edge signs, lane line signs, and centerline
signs all present together was most effective. These data show that
the gateway treatment maintained some of its efficacy even when
some elements were removed, as would be the case if one of the
signs was damaged during a season.6,7
In 2013, the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT)
initiated a multi-year study with Western Michigan University
(WMU) to determine:
1. Whether the effects of the gateway on driver yielding right-ofway to pedestrians persist over an entire season;
2. Whether the gateway treatment influences vehicle speeds even
when pedestrians are not present in the crosswalk;
3. Whether the effects on vehicle speed persist over an entire
season; and
4. Which type gateway sign elements have the greatest probability
of long-term durability.

Number
of lanes

Table 1. Characteristics of each site.
Figure 1. Portion of a Gateway R1-6 treatment on one side of a pedestrian
refuge island.

No

Yes

9,200

30

Stadium in Ann Arbor
3
No
Yes
12,500
Huron Midblock
4
No
Yes
20,100
Mean
Midblock without refuge island or median
N Main St. Three Rivers
2
Yes
No
7,500
Mean
Intersection
Westnedge @ Ranney One -Way 2
Yes
No
17,254
Nixon @ Bluett, Ann Arbor
3
No
No
9,734
Division @ Jefferson One-Way
2
Yes
No
9,284
Wealthy at Cass GR
4
No
No
11,328
Lake at Carroll GR
3
Yes
No
15,650
Mean Speed Intersection No Curb Extension Sites
Intersection with curb extension
Cherry at Hollister GR
2
Yes
No
7,571
Wealthy at Henry GR
2
Yes
No
13,274
Cherry at Warren GR
2
Yes
No
7,571
Mean Yielding and Mean Speed All intersection Sites
Traffic Circle and Roundabouts
Roundabout @ Riverview
2
No
Yes
9,400
Roundabout @ 5th St.
2
No
Yes
6,900
Traffic Circle Wde
1
No
Yes
14,400
Traffic Circle Narrow
1
No
Yes
14,000
Mean All Sites
Flexible Delineator on lane lines
* Baseline speeds below 25 mph

35
30

*30

35
30
25
25
25

25
*25
25

*35
*35
*35
*35



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal March 2018

ITE Journal March 2018 - 1
ITE Journal March 2018 - 2
ITE Journal March 2018 - 3
ITE Journal March 2018 - 4
ITE Journal March 2018 - 5
ITE Journal March 2018 - 6
ITE Journal March 2018 - 7
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ITE Journal March 2018 - 32
ITE Journal March 2018 - 33
ITE Journal March 2018 - 34
ITE Journal March 2018 - 35
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ITE Journal March 2018 - 40
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ITE Journal March 2018 - 50
ITE Journal March 2018 - 51
ITE Journal March 2018 - 52
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