ITE Journal March 2018 - 33

Each data sheet (a data point) consisted of 20 pedestrian
crossings when drivers were present who could yield or fail to yield
to the pedestrian. A minimum of five data points were collected
during baseline at each site. A minimum of three data sheets were
collected at each site when the temporary gateway installation was
in place and monthly after permanent installations for three months
in 2015 (June to November) and during seven months (May to
November) in 2016. All data were collected during daylight hours.

Inter-observer Agreement Yielding
Inter-observer agreement was calculated in the field for at least
34 percent of all observations in this experiment, and data were
collected independently during each condition of each experiment to
validate the observational data. Each event that was scored the same
by both observers was counted as an agreement, and each event that
was scored differently by each observer was scored as a disagreement.
Inter-observer agreement on the percentage of drivers yielding to
pedestrians averaged 96.8 percent over all of the studies completed in
this research with a range of 87.5 percent to 100 percent.

data sheet. Signs on a curb type mounting base and signs flush
mounted on a pivoting base were counterbalanced for placement on
the lane line and on the right side of the road.

Apparatus
Three types of traffic control devices (TCDs) were used in this
study. The first TCD device was the R1-6 in-street sign with a curb
type base with a flexible rubber connector between the paddle
and the curb type mounting base. The second TCD was a flexible
delineator, and the third TCD was a R1-6 sign with a flush mounted
base and a spring loaded pivot at the base (see Figure 2 for a picture
of each type of gateway element).
2a

2b

2c

Speed Data
Speed was measured with an Ultra Lyte LTI 20-20 laser speed
measuring system mounted on a surveyor tripod set up between
3 and 4 feet (ft.) from the curb, depending on the location, and
between 120 ft. and 150 ft. beyond the crosswalk facing approaching
traffic to eliminate any significant cosine error. The person collecting
data was dressed as a surveyor to conceal speed data collection.
The dependent variable was the vehicle's speed as it traversed
the dilemma zone, and a second speed measure was taken on the
same vehicle as it traversed the crosswalk. Speed data were collected
during a baseline in April of 2016, after the gateway treatments
were installed in June (after one month), the end of August (the end
of three months), and the end of October (at the end of 5 months).
During each speed measure period, data were collected on a sample
of 400 vehicles when no pedestrians were present. Data were always
recorded in the same direction at each site.

Hard Braking
To determine whether the gateway increased the percentage of hard
braking, data were recorded on hard braking at two sites in Ann
Arbor, MI: Nixon Road at Bluett Road and S. Division Street at E.
Jefferson, Street. Hard braking was defined as the driver braking
hard as defined by audible braking or the rear of the car making a
sudden upward displacement during deceleration.

Sign Durability
Signs were checked for damage on each month prior to collecting
yielding data. Upon arrival to the site, researchers would take
photos of the signs and look for any sign damage and log it on the

Figure 2 a-c: Figure 2a. (above left) shows an R1-6 sign installed on a
removable curb type base. Figure 2b. (middle) shows a flexible delineator
installation. Figure 2c. (above right) shows an R1-6 sign mounted on a
flush mounted base with a spring loaded pivot point.

Results
Driver Yielding
Midblock and Intersection Sites
The percentage of drivers yielding right-of-way to pedestrians at each
site located at midblock and intersection locations are shown in the top
portion of Table 2. Each cell is color-coded. Yielding measured between
0 percent and 19 percent were colored pink. Yielding measured
between 20 percent and 39 percent were colored orange, yielding
between 40 percent and 59 percent were colored yellow, yielding
between 60 percent and 79 percent were colored green, and yielding
between 80 percent and 100 percent were colored blue. The installation
of the temporary gateway led to an increase in the percentage of
drivers yielding to pedestrians at each site. During baseline conditions,
yielding averaged 15 percent with a range of 0 to 40 percent. When the
temporary gateway treatment was evaluated, yielding increased to 75
percent with a range of 50 percent to 94 percent.
Once the permanent gateway treatments were installed yielding
remained consistently high at all sites with little evidence of decline
unless most of the signs were damaged (this only occurred at one
site, Westnedge at Ranney-a two lane one-way street with on
street parking).
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M arch 2018

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal March 2018

ITE Journal March 2018 - 1
ITE Journal March 2018 - 2
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