ITE Journal March 2018 - 38

position, and capable of restoring the sign to the vertical position if
struck by a vehicle, installed in the center of the road or installed on
the right lane line showed little evidence of being struck and only
one was damaged although it continued to work in its damaged
state. Forty-two percent of the signs installed in the center of the
road or on the right lane line with flush mounted bases and a
spring-loaded pivoting connector were destroyed.
Only one of the flexible delineator posts was destroyed (at
Westnedge and Ranney), and this was at the site with the highest
number of strikes. The use of the flexible delineator post looks like
it can survive; however these data show that this device can be
destroyed if struck on a regular basis.

Discussion
The results of the study on the persistence of the effect produced
several interesting findings. First, the introduction of the gateway
treatment was associated with a large increase in the percentage
of drivers yielding right of way to pedestrians at each of the fifteen
sites. Second, the increase in yielding was greater at intersection
and midblock crosswalks than at crosswalks at a roundabout or
traffic circle locations. Third, increases in yielding were maintained
over time. This shows that the increase in yielding produced by the
sign was not a novelty effect. Another interesting finding was that
the gateway effect was partially maintained when one element of the
gateway was lost. This result suggests that maintenance may not be
immediately required when a single sign element is lost.
The results of the study on the effects of the gateway treatment on
driver speed as they traverse the crosswalk when pedestrians were
not present produced several important findings. First, the reduction
in mean driver speed was relatively robust and equal to or better than
most practical traffic calming methods. This is important because
driver speed is related to the probability of a pedestrian crash as well
as the seriousness of a pedestrian crash. The speed a driver crosses
when a pedestrian is not present is important because it is also the
speed present when a driver does not see a pedestrian in a crosswalk,
or does not see the pedestrian until there is less time to react. Drivers
also began slowing at the dilemma zone. This finding is important
because gradual slowing decreases the probability and potential
severity of a rear end crash when the following driver is inattentive. It
is interesting to note that data on hard braking obtained at two sites
with large speed reductions confirm that hard braking conflicts do
not appear to be an issue with the gateway treatment.
The sign survival results showed that signs with one type of
R1-6 mounting hardware (Flush mounted with a spring-loaded
pivot) did not perform as well as the others. All of the R1-6 signs
lost in vulnerable locations were of this type. Those mounted
with a flexible rubber linkage on a curb type base all survived
although one of the paddles was bent on one of these signs. It was
also noted that signs placed in the gutterpan on top of a the curb
38

Ma rch 2018

i te j o urn al

on the left side of a curb extension, on top of curb on the edge of
a refuge island or median, or on top of the curb on the right side
of the roadway under Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
permission to experiment were more likely to survive, as none of
these signs were lost, regardless of type, over the study period.
Six of the signs on the centerline and thirteen signs on curb or
gutterpan locations were left in over the winter months in Grand
Rapids (December 2016 through March 2017). Signs placed outside
the travel way survived, and half of those placed on a centerline
survived the plow blade. All of these signs had the curb type base
with the rubber connector. More information on installation of
the gateway in-street sign treatment can be found in a user guide
on the MDOT website at http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/tands/
Details_Web/mdot_user_guide_gateway_treatment.pdf.
Based on several studies conducted by MDOT on the use
of the gateway configuration of the R1-6 sign, the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) has selected the gateway treatment as an AASHTO
Innovation Initiative, or focus treatment. The AASHTO Innovation
Initiative (AII) is one of AASHTO's technical services programs.
The program actively seeks to identify new, high pay-off, proven
innovations in transportation technology from member agencies
and champion their adoption among the peer agencies. The
program selects highly valuable technologies, processes, software,
or other innovations every year, otherwise referred to as focus
technologies, that have been adopted by at least one agency, are
proven in use, and will be of significant benefit to other agencies.
The program invests time and money on each focus technology to
accelerate their adoption by agencies nationwide.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by a grant from the Michigan
Department of Transportation (MDOT) and the University of
Minnesota Roadway Safety Institute. The authors thank Mark
Bott, MDOT's engineer for Traffic & Safety, as well as the City of
Grand Rapids and the city's traffic safety manager, Chris Zull, and
the City of Ann Arbor traffic engineer Cynthia Redinger, for their
cooperation in identifying research sites. itej

References
1. United States Government Accounting Office. Report to Congressional
Request. Pedestrians and Cyclists: Cities, states, and DOT are
implementing actions to improve safety (2015): GAO 16-66.
2. Retting, R., Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities by State: 2016 Preliminary Data.
Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC (2016).
3. Bennett, M., H. Manal, H., & R. Van Houten. "A Comparison of Gateway
In-Street Sign Treatment to other Driver Prompts to Increase Yielding
to Pedestrians at Crosswalks." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
(2014): 47, 1-13.


http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/tands/Details_Web/mdot_user_guide_gateway_treatment.pdf http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/tands/Details_Web/mdot_user_guide_gateway_treatment.pdf

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal March 2018

ITE Journal March 2018 - 1
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