POWER December 2021 - 24

HYBRID POWER
ergy markets. That's well above the four
hours of storage possible with today's
grid-scale battery storage systems. In
the future, several days of storage will
be needed to shift solar and wind energy
from periods of excess production to periods
of limited production. "
Heated Sand. Researchers at the
3. Brenmiller Energy's bGen high-temperature thermal energy storage unit uses crushed rock
media as the storage material, but it also integrates heat exchangers and a steam generator.
Courtesy: Brenmiller Energy
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL) in late August announced they
are in the " late stages " of prototype
testing a TES that uses inexpensive
silica sand. The " ENDURING " project,
for which Babcock & Wilcox holds an
exclusive
intellectual
property option
4. Storworks Power and the Electric Power Research Institute will demonstrate a nominal
10-MWh-e concrete thermal energy storage system at Alabama Power's coal-fired Plant Gaston.
The system will consist of 60 blocks, each weighing 18 tons with approximately 200 kWh
of storage capability. While the system is pilot-scale, larger, commercial-scale systems could be
deployed by simply adding blocks. Courtesy: Storworks Power
The process cycle essentially involves
diverting steam from the APR1400
steam cycle upstream of the high-pressure
turbine, condensing and cooling it
in heat exchangers, and then transporting
the hot oil offsite to the packed bed
configuration for storage.
Concrete Thermal Energy Storage.
EPRI and Colorado-headquartered Storworks
Power (a company formerly known
as Bright Energy Storage) are exploring a
technology that uses concrete to store
energy generated by thermal power facilities,
including fossil, nuclear, and CSP
plants. Recent lab tests have validated
the design, which essentially uses large
concrete blocks that are stacked in a location
near the power plant and heats
them through tubes embedded in the
blocks with redirected plant-produced
steam when the plant's output is not
needed by the grid.
" When plant power production needs
to be increased again, heated feedwater
from the plant is pumped into the tubes
and converted to superheated steam for
power generation at a separate steam
turbine. At the same time, steam generated
by the power plant is diverted back
24
to the plant's main turbine to generate additional
output, " EPRI said. " This approach
can extend the time for the plant to run
at full load, boosting efficiency and reducing
damage that can result from cycling
up and down and other dynamic modes. "
EPRI and Storworks Power are now
working with Southern Co. and engineering
company United E&C to demonstrate
an optimized design at Alabama Power's
Plant Gaston (Figure 4) in a project backed
with a $4 million DOE award. Construction
kicked off in September 2021 and
the 10-MWh-e demonstration is expected
to wrap up by the end of 2022.
EPRI suggests that because the technology
uses " readily available, cheap
concrete, " it can potentially enable energy
storage at capital costs of less
than $100/kWh-well below the capital
costs of lithium ion batteries. " At about
$65 per ton, concrete is less than 10%
of the cost of the molten salts currently
used for thermal storage, " said EPRI
Principal Technical Leader Scott Hume.
" With heat losses of about 1% per day,
concrete systems can potentially provide
several days of storage, which is what's
needed in wind- and solar-dominated enwww.powermag.com
agreement,
essentially feeds sand particles
through an array of electric resistive
heating elements to heat them to
1,200C- " imagine pouring sand through
a giant toaster, " NREL told POWER-and
gravity-feeds them into insulated silos
for thermal energy storage. The baseline
system can store 26,000 MWh, it said.
During periods of high power demand,
the hot particles are gravity-fed through
a heat exchanger, heating and pressurizing
a working gas inside to drive the
turbomachinery and spin generators that
create electricity for the grid.
Phase Change Technology. Mainebased
Peregrine Turbine Technologies
(PTT), Australian-based MGA Thermal,
and Maine-based Cianbro Corp. are working
on a first-of-kind 1-MW/16.5-MWh
TES system at an existing Maine solar
PV installation that will integrate miscibility
gap alloy phase change technology
and PTT's supercritical carbon dioxide
turbomachinery. As Robert Brooks, PTT
chief business development officer and
co-founder, told POWER in November,
the TES is not intended to compete with
batteries for immediacy, even though
it may be less expensive than batteries
when the dispatch duration is four hours
or more at rated output. " Due to the capacity
costs, there will always be some
duration where the TES offers a lower
cost than batteries. If fast-ramp discharge
capacity is desired, then the lowest cost
solution would be a [lithium]-ion/TES hybrid
solution where batteries are used for
immediacy and frequency support and
the TES provides capacity, " he explained.
The driver of adoption for TES technology
will less likely be its cost in dollars
per MWh, " but rather its operating flexibility
for deep cycling to capture revenue,
its extended run time capacities, and the
potential to capture capacity that is poorly
utilized, " Brooks suggested. ■
-Sonal Patel is a POWER senior
associate editor.
POWER | December 2021
http://www.powermag.com

POWER December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of POWER December 2021

POWER December 2021 - Cover1
POWER December 2021 - Cover2
POWER December 2021 - 1
POWER December 2021 - 2
POWER December 2021 - 3
POWER December 2021 - 4
POWER December 2021 - 5
POWER December 2021 - 6
POWER December 2021 - 7
POWER December 2021 - 8
POWER December 2021 - 9
POWER December 2021 - 10
POWER December 2021 - 11
POWER December 2021 - 12
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POWER December 2021 - 14
POWER December 2021 - 15
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POWER December 2021 - 17
POWER December 2021 - 18
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POWER December 2021 - 20
POWER December 2021 - SCover1
POWER December 2021 - SCover2
POWER December 2021 - S1
POWER December 2021 - S2
POWER December 2021 - S3
POWER December 2021 - S4
POWER December 2021 - S5
POWER December 2021 - S6
POWER December 2021 - S7
POWER December 2021 - S8
POWER December 2021 - S9
POWER December 2021 - S10
POWER December 2021 - S11
POWER December 2021 - S12
POWER December 2021 - S13
POWER December 2021 - S14
POWER December 2021 - S15
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POWER December 2021 - SCover3
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POWER December 2021 - Cover3
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