The Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1 - 34

Benjamin R. Meagher

	 Table 2
	 Means, Standard Deviations, and Zero-Order Correlations for Measured Constructs
	
			

1	

2	

3	

4	

5	

6	

7	

8	

9

	 1.	 Place identity			
	 2.	Place attachment	
	 3.	 Positive affect	
	 4.	Negative affect	
	 5.	Autonomy		
	 6.	Self-regulation	
	 7.	 Emotional well-being	
	 8.	Social well-being	
	 9.	Psychological well-being	
	Mean		
	 Standard deviation	
	
Scale range		

.56**	
.14*	 -.01	
-.02	 -.03	
.15*
.21**	 .17**	 .31**	 -.11
.14*	 -.02	
.35**	 -.20**	 .47**
.11	
-.03	
.39**	 -.25**	
.30**	 .36**
.09	 -.07	
.43**	 -.09	
.23**	 .29**	 .66**
.21**	 .00	
.47**	 -.26**	 .43**	 .53**	 .72**	 .69**
4.89	 4.41	 2.77	 1.98	 3.93	 3.67	 3.74	 2.99	 3.64
1.18	
1.26	 0.96	 0.71	
0.66	 0.49	
0.80	 0.96	
0.82
1-7	 1-7	 1-5	1-5	 1-5	 1-5	 1-5	1-5	 1.5

Note. *p < .05; **p < .01

	 To explore the association between place
identity and psychological well-being, a series
of hierarchical linear regressions were conducted. The coefficients for these analyses are
shown in Table 3. In Model 1, psychological
well-being was first predicted by three demographic control variables: gender, current year
in college, and identification as a racial minority. None of these factors were statistically
significant predictors, explaining a very small
percentage of variance, R2 = .01. The inclusion
of the Big Five personality factors in Model 2
produced a substantial change in the explained
variance, ΔR2 = .31, F(5, 245) = 22.55, p < .001.
Four of the five personality traits were associated with well-being: extraversion, b =  .23,
β = .24, t(245) = 4.28, p < .001, 95% CI [.12, .33];
conscientiousness, b = .38, β = .26, t(245) = 4.65,
p < .001, 95% CI [.22, .55]; neuroticism, b  = -.30,
β = -.28, t(245) = 4.50, p <  .001, 95% CI [-.44,

34

-.17]; and openness, b = .24, β = .16, t(245) = 2.95,
p = .004, 95% CI [.08, .41]. In Model 3, place
identity was added, which also improved fit,
ΔR2  = .03, F(1, 244) = 11.15, p = .001. Thus, place
identity was a unique predictor of psychological well-being, above and beyond the individual's personality traits.
	 To further evaluate this relationship, a parallel multivariable mediation model was conducted using the SPSS macro PROCESS v3.1
(Hayes, 2013). This model sought to evaluate
the extent to which positive affect, negative
affect, autonomy, and self-regulation would
explain the relationship between place identity and psychological well-being. This analysis made use of 5,000 bootstrapping samples,
with significance testing conducted with 95%
confidence intervals correcting for biases in
the sampling distribution. The completely
standardized indirect effects, which are used

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1

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