The Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1 - 71

Professional Identities in Living-Learning Communities

Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate construct reliability for the engineering identity
scale. Each construct validity was presented to
better estimate overall reliability while taking
into account standard errors and individual
reliabilities-resulting in 0.77 for recognition,
0.89 for interest, and 0.88 for performance/
competence (Godwin, 2016). Cronbach's alpha
indicated strong internal consistency, suggesting that items measured as a single factor
grouped strongly together (Creswell & Guetterman, 2017).

Procedure
Data were extracted from Qualtrics and were
analyzed using the IBM SPSSĀ® statistical software for social sciences (Version 25). A screener
question was used immediately after obtaining
electronic consent to ensure that all students
were pursuing a degree within the college
of engineering. This screener was added in
case students changed their major or degree
program to one  outside the college after the recruitment panel was obtained, thereby making
their professional and engineering identities irrelevant for inclusion given the study's
purpose. One respondent indicated that they
were no longer pursuing a degree within the
college, so their responses were excluded from
analysis. Next, if respondents did not respond
to a particular item, the missing value was replaced with the mean for that item during data
analysis (George & Mallery, 2001). There were
nine instances within the engineering identity
scale and 43 within the professional identity
scale where the missing data accounted for less
than 15% of the scale and missing values were
replaced with the item mean. If a participant's
responses were missing on more than 15% of
the scale, then their responses were removed

from both the analysis of that particular scale
and the analysis of the total score for the instrument (George & Mallery, 2001).
Specifically, the first research objective was
obtained by reporting descriptive statistics
for each of the professional identity scale and
engineering identity scale constructs and the
scale total of residential students within the
college of engineering. To address the second
research objective, which sought to determine
if participation in an engineering-based LLC
affects professional and/or engineering identities, scale results were presented by LLC
participants and non-LLC participants who
identified as first-year students as of fall 2018.
Independent sample t-tests were applied to
compare constructs between LLC participants
and non-LLC participants. A Bonferroni correction was used to adjust the p-value to ensure
that tests of significance were not caused by a
type I error (Napierala, 2012).

LIMITATIONS
While we believe the study to be sound, we
note four limitations. First, we utilized a quantitative instrument to understand identity.
As shared previously, identity is dynamic, so
quantitative research might flatten the data by
preventing students from explaining the rich
context of their identity formation as an engineer. Therefore, future studies may choose to
add a qualitative component to catalogue the
development of engineering and professional
identities. Qualitative research in this area
would be powerful and informative.
The second limitation stems from the fact
that this study utilized self-reported commitment to the college, commitment to the major,

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