The Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1 - 75

Professional Identities in Living-Learning Communities

tional (n = 41), Hispanic/Latino (n = 113), Black
only/2+ or more (n = 12), Asian (n = 55), American Indian (n = 1), and two or more/excluding Black (n = 17). Table 2 presents the mean
scores of professional identity subscale by race.
Race was found to be statistically significant for
subscales of knowledge, F(6, 484) = 2.162, p =
0.045; experience F(6, 485) = 4.330, p = 0.001;
and the total, F(6, 484) = 2.347, p = 0.030). A
Tukey post-hoc test was attempted to explore the
source of the statistically significant difference
between the participants of different races, but
it could not be completed because one group
had fewer than two cases. The one-way ANOVA
was re-run without the American Indian participants. Race was found to be statistically significant for subscales of knowledge, F(5, 484) =
2.593, p = 0.025; experience, F(5, 485) = 5.193,
p = 0.000; and the total, F(5, 484) = 2.81, p =
0.016. A post-hoc Tukey test showed that, for
the knowledge subscale, the White and international groups differed significantly at p < 0.05;
the remaining groups were not significantly different from the others. For the experience subscale, the White and international, international
and Hispanic/Latino, international and Asian,
international and two or more/excluding Black
groups differed significantly at p < 0.05. For the
total, the White and international, international
and Hispanic/Latino, and international and
Asian groups differed significantly at p < 0.05.
A one-way ANOVA was conducted to
explore the differences in the means between
years at the institution and professional identity subscales. The assumption of homogeneity of variances was violated for knowledge (p =
0.033) and the total (p = 0.000), as assessed by
Levene's test for equality of variances. The professional identity subscales of knowledge, F(3,

61.512) = 1.206, p = 0.315, and the total, F(3,
50.401) = 0.166, p = 0.919), showed no statistical significance by years at the institution.
The efficacy subscale exhibited a statistical
significance difference by years at the institution, F(3, 454) = 5.15, p = 0.002. Tukey post-hoc
analysis revealed that the mean increase was
statistically significant (p = 0.01) between students in their first and fourth years (0.27, 95%
confidence interval [CI] [3.42, 3.79]) at the institution, but no other group differences were
statistically significant.

Engineering Identity Results
In regards to engineering identity, the total
mean score was reported as 4.80 (SD = 0.87)
across the 503 participants in the sample. The
highest subscale was interest, with a mean
of 5.16 (SD = 1.04). The lowest engineering
identity subscale was performance and competence, with a mean score of 4.51 (SD = 1.07).
Independent sample t-tests were run to
determine any differences in engineering
identity subscales between males and females.
Levene's test for homogeneity was consulted,
and each test met the assumption (p < 0.05).
The alpha value was adjusted to 0.049 using
a Bonferroni adjustment. The recognition subscale revealed higher scores for male (4.79 ±
0.05) than female engineering students (4.54
± 0.09), a statistically significant difference
of 0.25 ([95% CI, 0.04, 0.45], t[497] = 2.358,
p = 0.019). The performance and competence
subscale indicated male engineering students
having higher scores (4.60 ± 0.05) than their
female peers (4.26 ± 0.10), a statistically significant difference of 0.34 ([95% CI, 0.13, 0.56],
t[496] = 3.138, p = 0.002). The emotional intelligence total subscale demonstrated higher
male scores (4.85 ± 0.05) than female scores
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