The Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1 - 76

Samuel Wonson * Lori L. Moore * Pauline Wade * Dustin K. Grabsch *  Kasey Martinez * Andrea M. Ogilvie

(4.66 ± 0.07), a significant statistical difference of 0.19 ([95% CI, 0.01, 0.37], t[496] =
2.119, p = 0.035).
Independent sample t-tests were performed
on first-generation college student status to determine any differences seen in engineering
subscales. Findings indicated no statistically
significant results.
A one-way ANOVA was conducted on the
various racial identities included in the study
to deduce if there were any differences in the
means among engineering identity subscales.
Upon reviewing Levene's test for homogeneity, there were no violations in the assumption
across the subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among the means
of the engineering identity subscales by race.
A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine any differences in the means between
years at the institution and engineering identity subscales. Levene's test for homogeneity
was reviewed. The assumption of homogeneity of variances was violated for the recognition
subscale (p = 0.008). The engineering identity
subscale of recognition was found to approach
statistical significance (p = 0.05) by years at the
institution, Welch's F(3, 63.664) = 2.751, p <
0.05. No statistically significant difference was
shown to exist in the means of the subscales
interest, F(3, 462) = 1.928, p = 0.05, or performance and competence, F(3, 461) = 1.709, p =
0.189, by years at the institution. The means
were lower in fourth-year students than firstyear students.

Living-Learning Community Results
The second research objective sought to determine if participation in an engineering-based
LLC affects professional and/or engineering

76

identity. Table 4 and Table 5 present descriptive
statistics for the professional and engineering
identities of undergraduate respondents in
their first year at the institution (n = 360) by
engineering LLC participation. Tests for statistical significance were conducted between
professional and engineering identities and
student group (i.e., ethnicity, first-generation
college student status, gender, and years at the
institution). Each table presents only statistically significant differences by student group.
Some student groups did not achieve 30 respondents, so their significance results should
be used with caution.
Table 4 presents the professional identity
subscales by LLC participation. The highest
subscale was self-efficacy, with a mean of 3.88
(SD = 0.40). The lowest subscale was preference for a particular profession, with a mean
of 2.26 (SD = 0.65). When considering LLC
participation, the highest subscale was selfefficacy for LLC participants (M = 3.86, SD =
0.40) and for non-LLC participants (M = 3.82,
SD = 0.44). Independent sample t-tests were
run to determine any differences in the professional identity subscales between LLC participants and non-LLC participants. Levene's test
for homogeneity was consulted and indicated
that the assumption was never violated (p <
0.05). The findings showed no statistically significant results.
Table 5 presents engineering identity
means by LLC participation. The highest
scoring subscale was interest (M = 5.19, SD =
1.02), with the lowest being performance and
competence (M = 4.53, SD = 1.05). The greatest
difference in the means of 0.18 between LLC
participants and non-LLC participants was in
the recognition subscale. Independent sample

THE JOURNAL OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY STUDENT HOUSING



Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 1

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