Journal of College & University Student Housing Vol. 47 No. 2 - 80

. . . understanding how design type and gender interact
in residential environments warrants consideration,
especially if sense of community is a desired outcome
of the residential experience.
higher SOC being reported by men. However, as SOC outcomes for women were dramatically and consistently higher in campus
house arrangements than in the other two
design options, it is possible that women prefer campus houses because they tend to offer
larger bedrooms, lower room/hall occupancy,
and more individual amenities. Devlin et al.
(2008) confirmed this notion when they
concluded that women found these characteristics more attractive and conducive to increased community association.
	
Understanding why differences exist
between women and men is beyond the
scope of this study; however, the work of
more recent research teams on the impact
of residence hall design on student interactions might provide a rationale for such
results. Specifically, scholarly contributions
from Brandon et al. (2008), Bronkema and
Bowman (2017), and Devlin et al. (2008)
assert that hall design that provides lower in-room density is a superior floor plan
option because of its ability to increase frequency of interactions and formation of
friendships among residents throughout
the entire facility. Results from the present
study update the conclusions of these contemporary scholars by further determining differences between men and women,
wherein women report lower SOC development in shared, open-floor plans than did
men. Furthermore, and remaining open for
interpretation, the reasons for higher SOC
scores among women in campus houses and
men in suite-style accommodations may also
be based on setting-specific factors, such as
institutional type, location, and size. Perhaps
more promise lies in understanding SOC's

interconnection and relationship to social interactions (McMillan & Chavis, 1986; Unger
& Wandersman, 1983; Wilcox & Holahan,
1976) and how design may inhibit or deter
such experiences (Heasley et al., 2015) differently for women and men. As campuses
grapple with how to create sustainable community association in student housing, consideration of hall design and the gender of
residents assigned to reside within its walls
may provide insight into the type of sense of
community that will be experienced among
its inhabitants. Lastly, results from this
study suggest that decreasing hall density,
regardless of design layout, is associated
with higher overall SOC as reported by both
women and men.

Implications for Higher Education
A substantial number of higher education
institutions in the American educational system offer student housing. Yet despite the
abundance of and continued renovation and
development of student housing on college
campuses, there is little research available
to assist designers and planners in building
structures that add to a sense of community
in residential settings. Studies on this topic
that are performed at faith-based institutions
are even more scant. In consideration of
three common student housing types available for student occupancy (corridor-style,
suite-style, and single-gender campus houses), the general findings of this study reveal
that design type and gender are associated
with community affinity differently for women and men. However, the ability of university administrators, architects, and designers
to build residential facilities that enhance
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