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teamwork, interpersonal considerations, critical thinking, and other aspects serve as a key
element of evaluation.

PURPOSES OF GROUP PROCESS
It is useful to devote some attention to the
various reasons for including group process
in evaluating RA candidates. Many RAs are
expected to work with residents in groups-
floor communities, hall government, program planning-so an understanding of
their performance in a group can inform
hiring decisions. A department might use
information collected during group process
as one of several factors, along with a written application, recommendation letters/
forms, and an individual interview (Stoner,
2019a). Group process information might be
used to reduce the candidate pool prior to individual interviews (Stoner, 2019a) and can
act as a screening tool for both the evaluators
and candidates. Many professionals point to
the efficiency of group process via the ability to evaluate many candidates in one carousel of group activities. Information from
group process, aggregated for all candidates,
helps identify staff training and development
needs. Importantly, group process might
help educate candidates about the RA position and socialize candidates to their duties
and the department community.

EFFECTIVENESS
OF GROUP PROCESS
Group interviews have been used in academic disciplines, such as Bachelor of Science
in nursing applicants (House et al., 2015;
Trice & Foster, 2006), medical school applicants (Liao et al., 2014), school counseling
applicants (Stone & Hanson, 2002), college
faculty (Goldenstein et al., 2019), and teach-

er educators (Brynes, et al., 2003; Leshem,
2012). This approach has often been initiated to ameliorate perceived deficiencies in
existing selection procedures. For instance,
Trice and Foster (2006) studied a nursing
program where applicants were selected
based on general education grade point average. Attentive to the diversity of their student population, the faculty sought means to
more effectively evaluate the qualifications
of applicants from underrepresented populations. They developed a group interview with
three to five candidates, several interviewers,
and standard questions for each interview.
Among other benefits, across several years,
the group interview process increased the
student population ethnic diversity from 2%
to " as high as 25% " (Trice & Foster, 2006,
p. 528). Similarly, research on LGD ranges
across industry and role type. For instance,
Kiessling and Kalish (1961) studied LGDs as
part of the screening for police officers and
found that LGDs were a positive and successful inclusion in the process.
	
Conversely, literature about group process generally, and group process effectiveness specifically (as opposed to group
interviews or LGDs), is sparse. In a single-institution study examining RA hiring process
elements (i.e., application, individual interview, group process), none was a predictor
of successful candidates' performance as
RAs (Berg & Stoner, 2016). Further, " no individual component of the selection process
accounted for more than 4% of the variance
in RA performance " (Berg & Stoner, 2016,
p. 33). This suggests that selecting the best
candidates for the RA position is little better
than guesswork and underscores the importance of understanding the limitations of
group process as a hiring tool.

Volume 47, No. 3 * 2021

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