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A lack of programming and educational outreach regarding RSSIs
thus illustrates a concept . . . described as false neutral secularism,
wherein the attempt to support no particular religion continuously
preferences Christian, and often White Protestant Christian, practices.
hijab, and found that female Muslim students encountered bullying and discrimination
as a nearly ever-present reality on campus. Following the election of Donald
Trump as President of the United States, the incidence of hate crimes against the
Muslim community rose nearly 600% (American Civil Liberties Union, 2016). Likewise,
an uptick in anti-Semitic acts on college campuses has also been reported by
Hillel International (Mokhtarzahad, 2015; Saxe et al., 2015).
The numbers of non-religious-identifying individuals in the United States are also
growing. CIRP data (HERI, 2019) have revealed that 16.5% of all first-year students
identify as " none " in regard to religious affiliation. This figure more than doubles
when accounting for students identifying as atheist or agnostic, two commonly used
categories encompassing what the Pew Research Center identifies as " nones " (2014).
Although " nones " are categorized as a single subculture, they represent more than
atheists and agnostics (Pew Research Center, 2014) and encompass a complex set of
identities that often do not relate to one another. Atheists and agnostics hold different
beliefs and values, and those who might identify as " nothing in particular " are often
not engaged in RSSIs at all (Pew Research Center, 2014). Included within the " none "
category are also large numbers of individuals unwilling to choose a particular tradition
(Bidwell, 2018) and may instead claim multiple religious identities. Combined,
more than 33% of 2019 first-year U.S. college students did not identify with a specific
religious tradition (HERI, 2019). Each of the identities within the " none " category has
been underserved, underappreciated, and misunderstood regarding their needs for as
long as U.S. higher education has been endeavoring to support students.
RSSIs AND INTERSECTIONALITY
A contemporary conversation about RSSIs should include a broad conceptualization
of the complexities inherent in today's college students. RSSIs must be situated in
concert with other more salient identities such as race, gender, or LGBTQIA+. When
understood in this way, professionals are able to more easily identify power dynamics
in which being White and Christian is both a privilege and a potential oppressive force.
For example, the notion that all Muslims are black or brown or that White Jews might
be seen as less marginalized than other religious minorities calls into question how
racial identity is seen as having a more marginalized status than religion does. Understanding
RSSIs within this intersection of identities expresses the ways in which
certain RSSIs may be further marginalized due to racial inequities. Yet, according to
statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI, 2021), Jews are the most targeted
religious group for hate crimes. This is just one reason that colleges and universities
should focus more of their diversity, equity, and inclusion work on students with
Volume 48, No. 2 * 2022 59

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Journal of College & University Student Housing Volume 48, No. 2

Journal of College & University Student Housing Volume 48, No. 2 - intro
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