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Design and Depression
(omitting gender non-binary participants due to low sample size and analyzing only
the self-identified male and female participants); cohort as the predictor (two levels:
Cohort 1 versus Cohort 2); life satisfaction as the covariate; and depression as the outcome
variable (see Figure 1). To examine the relative magnitude of the effects of satisfaction
with different areas on well-being, a regression with Type II Sums of Squares was
conducted with depression as the outcome, life satisfaction as a covariate, and satisfaction
scores for the three areas (private residential spaces, residential hall social spaces, and
campus social spaces) as the predictors. The standardized regression coefficients of
the three areas were compared to indicate relative importance. All significance tests in
the study were two-tailed, and α = 0.05 was used as the cut-off. The statistical analyses
were conducted in R.
RESULTS
The first research question inquired whether living in the old residential facilities or
the new living-learning neighborhood significantly predicts students' self-reported
depressive symptoms. Cohort, or living condition, had a significant main effect on
depressive symptoms after controlling for life satisfaction, F(1, 216) = 12.51, p < .001.
The adjusted mean of depression scores is significantly lower in Cohort 2 (M = 20.31,
SD = 0.49) than in Cohort 1 (M = 22.72, SD = 0.47). Three statistical assumptions of this
analysis were satisfied: (1) There was no association between cohort and life satisfaction,
(2) cohort and life satisfaction did not interact when predicting depressive symptoms,
and (3) life satisfaction, which is included as a covariate in the model, is significantly
and negatively correlated with depression, r(217) = -.35, p < .001. See Figure 5 (page 23)
for the visualized result of this research question and Table 1 (page 23) for detailed
ANCOVA output.
The second research question was concerned with understanding if gender moderated
the relationship between living conditions and depressive symptoms. The moderated
regression with Type III Sums of Squares showed no significant interaction between
gender and cohort (p > 0.05). Thus, gender is not a moderator of the association
between cohort and depression. The main effect of gender on depression adjusted for
life satisfaction reached significance (p < 0.001) in our study, and the gender difference
is aligned with results from previous literature showing that female college students
reported higher depression scores than did males. The statistical assumption for this
analysis that there was no interaction between gender and life satisfaction was met.
See Figure 6 (page 24) for the conceptual diagram with results for this research question
and Table 2 (page 24) for the detailed moderated regression output.
The third research question investigated whether students' satisfaction with
different functional areas (private residential spaces, residential hall social spaces,
campus social spaces) of the new living-learning neighborhood had an influence
on (1) students' self-reported depressive symptoms and (2) the predictive power of
these three sub-areas on reduced depressive symptoms. In addition to life satisfaction,
satisfaction with private residential and campus social spaces is significantly
22 The Journal of College and University Student Housing

Journal of College & University Student Housing Volume 50, No. 2

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