Journal of College & University Student Housing Volume 50, No. 2 - 94

Re-visioning Bulletin Boards
We applied a learning framework to analyze the deep learning that residents experienced
by completing this study. Studies have shown that students learn more deeply
when they engage in the material (Chi & Wylie, 2014; Corno & Mandinach, 1983; King,
1993; Tharayil et al., 2018). We utilize the ICAP framework (Chi & Wiley, 2014) to categorize
the depth of learning into four levels-passive, active, constructive, and interactive-in
order to demonstrate the depth of a learning activity. These categories build
on each other. At the first level is passive learning, or simply taking information without
connecting it to any other knowledge; it is the least involved category. Next is active
learning, which involves manipulating the information in some way, such as by taking
notes. The next level is constructive, which is marked by students creating knowledge
from the information, such as coming up with a new idea or connecting to knowledge
they already possess. The most involved category is interactive, where students discuss
the information with someone else, and they create knowledge together.
Promoting and assessing learning is increasingly relevant in residential contexts.
Many schools have begun to implement a residential curriculum, which includes identifying
learning goals, specific learning outcomes for each goal, and a set of coordinated
educational strategies for achieving those outcomes (Kerr et al., 2020). One strategy,
or pedagogical tool, is to populate bulletin boards with specific content that aligns with
curricular aims to promote learning among residents. Bulletin boards represent an
indirect form of education, but they can also serve as an interactive tool for residential
learners (Kerr et al., 2017). UT-Austin is one example of a school that uses bulletin
boards as part of its residential curriculum, and our study focused on two of the three
departmental learning goals, outlined below:
Goal 1-Community engagement
Residents will engage in community and will be able to
* identify within a community
* interact and communicate with others effectively
* develop positive relationships and
* participate in civic life.
Goal 2-Cultural competency
Residents will be able to demonstrate cultural competency and will be able to
* articulate their own identities
* understand and express personal values and viewpoints
* bridge differences and commonalities
* affirm and celebrate others and
* advocate for diversity, inclusion, and equity.
In order to explore the nuances of students' expressions of learning offered
through photovoice, we also examined participants' auteurship, or strategic artistic
decisions (Shankar, 2016). UT-Austin offers a particularly interesting case of bulletin
board learning because resident assistants are encouraged to be creative in designing
unique displays according to topics within the residential curriculum. Thus, our participants
had more choices about where to direct their visual attention than they would if
Volume 50, No. 2 * 2024 91

Journal of College & University Student Housing Volume 50, No. 2

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