Avionics News July 2015 - 13

to the RTCA, it is "a private, not-for-profit corporation utilized
as a federal advisory committee. The RTCA works in response to
requests from the Federal Aviation Administration to develop comprehensive, industry-vetted and endorsed recommendations for the
government on issues ranging from technical performance standards to operational concepts for air transportation." It continues
by claiming that "RTCA employs a consensus-driven process to
generate minimum performance standards for CNS/ATM systems
and equipment; to forge recommendations on key aviation policies,
and identifying and developing mitigation on issues affecting air
traffic management operations."
There isn't anyone in the avionics industry who doesn't (or
shouldn't) be familiar with the thousands of standards developed
by the RTCA special committees. The RTCA standards and
materials are published as operational and safety performance
requirements, operational services and environment definitions,
interoperability requirements, minimum aviation system performance standards, minimum operational performance standards,
reports and guidelines.
In parallel with the familiar standards of the RTCA are the ARINC
standards. ARINC was incorporated in 1929 as Aeronautical Radio
Incorporated, primarily as the airline industry's single licensee and
coordinator of radio communication. In the early years of ARINC,
it also developed many of the standards for the trays and boxes
used to hold standard line-replaceable units in aircraft to permit
electronics to be rapidly replaced without complex fasteners or test
equipment. There are currently more than 500 ARINC standards
used in aviation, avionics and aerospace.
According to ARINC, there are three classes of ARINC
standards:
* ARINC characteristics define the form, fit, function and
interfaces of avionics, cabin systems and aircraft networks.
* ARINC specifications define the physical packaging or
mounting of avionics and cabin equipment; communication, networking and data security standards; or a high-level
computer language.
* ARINC reports provide guidelines or general information
found by the aviation industry to be preferred practices,
often related to avionics maintenance and flight simulator
engineering and maintenance.
On Dec. 23, 2013, ARINC Industry Activities was sold to SAE
Industry Technologies Consortia, or SAE ITC, a trade association
serving the automotive, aerospace and commercial vehicle sectors.
Dating to the late 17th and early 18th centuries, government
standards began to emerge as military standards. As described in a
1994 report on acquisition reform by the U.S. General Accounting
Office, "military specifications" describe the physical and or operational characteristics of a product and "military standards" detail
the processes and materials to be used to make the product. The
standards also can describe how to manage the manufacturing and
testing of a part. In addition, the report defined the purposes for

Mil-Specs as having been to "(1) ensure interoperability between
products, (2) provide products that can perform in extreme conditions, (3) protect against contractor fraud and (4) promote greater
opportunities for competition among contractors."
In aviation, we are all raised around hardware and materials with
the standard classification of AN, MS and NAS. From a paper titled
"Aircraft Hardware, What You Need to Know" by Ron Alexander:
That standard was actually developed prior to World
War II, but became more definitive during that war. Each
branch of the military originally had its own standard for
hardware. As time went on, these standards were consolidated and thus the term AN, which means Air Force-Navy
(some prefer the older term Army-Navy). Later, the standards were termed MS, which means military standard,
and NAS, which means national aerospace standards.
Thus, the common terms AN, MS and NAS.
However, dating back more than two decades, on June 29,
1994, former U.S. Secretary of Defense William J. Perry published
a memorandum titled "A New Way of Doing Business." This
memorandum added two new directions that have a direct effect
on aircraft maintenance today. First, Perry directed that the undersecretary of defense (acquisition and technology) shall develop a
plan for transferring specifications and standards to nongovernment standards. This resulted in many of the assumed "Mil-Spec"
products that we think we are using today but are actually public
(nongovernment) standards managed by a consensus body. And
second, it encouraged the undersecretary of defense (acquisition
and technology) to form partnerships with industry associations
to develop nongovernment standards for replacement of military
standards where practicable.
Alexander's paper linked AN, MS and NAS together as various
nomenclature for military specification. However, national aerospace standards are actually voluntary standards that have been
developed and managed since 1941 by the Aerospace Industries
Association. In addition to all types of screws, nuts and rivets, NAS
standards define high-pressure hose, electrical connectors, splices
and terminations, rod end bearings, and many other types of hardware and components. According to information from the AIA, it
has converted more than 500 Mil-Specs to NAS.
In parallel with Perry's memorandum, the National Technology
Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 was signed into law by
President Bill Clinton on March 7, 1996. The Act mandates that
all federal agencies use technical standards developed and adopted
by voluntary consensus standards bodies, as opposed to using
government-unique standards. The guidelines used by agencies to
assess and report their conformity with the requirements of the Act
are detailed in Office of Budget and Management Circular A-119.
The Circular establishes the National Institute of Standards and
Technology as the agency responsible for coordinating conformity
Continued on page 72
AVIONICS NEWS

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JULY

2015

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Avionics News July 2015

Point of Communication
AEA Now
The View from Washington
International News and Regulatory Updates
ADS-B Strategy Accelerated
Member Profile
More Power to the Panel
Legacy of Small Town Airports
A Conversation With...
Current Status of ADS-B Deployment in the U.S.
Member Profile
Garmin’s G3X Touch
Artisanal Avionics
The Standy Power Dilemma b
What’s Working?
Business Basics
Aviation Aces
What’s New
Marketplace Classifieds
Avionics News July 2015 - Intro
Avionics News July 2015 - Cover1
Avionics News July 2015 - Cover2
Avionics News July 2015 - 1
Avionics News July 2015 - 2
Avionics News July 2015 - 3
Avionics News July 2015 - Point of Communication
Avionics News July 2015 - 5
Avionics News July 2015 - AEA Now
Avionics News July 2015 - 7
Avionics News July 2015 - 8
Avionics News July 2015 - 9
Avionics News July 2015 - 10
Avionics News July 2015 - 11
Avionics News July 2015 - The View from Washington
Avionics News July 2015 - 13
Avionics News July 2015 - International News and Regulatory Updates
Avionics News July 2015 - 15
Avionics News July 2015 - 16
Avionics News July 2015 - 17
Avionics News July 2015 - ADS-B Strategy Accelerated
Avionics News July 2015 - 19
Avionics News July 2015 - 20
Avionics News July 2015 - 21
Avionics News July 2015 - Member Profile
Avionics News July 2015 - 23
Avionics News July 2015 - 24
Avionics News July 2015 - 25
Avionics News July 2015 - More Power to the Panel
Avionics News July 2015 - 27
Avionics News July 2015 - 28
Avionics News July 2015 - 29
Avionics News July 2015 - 30
Avionics News July 2015 - 31
Avionics News July 2015 - Legacy of Small Town Airports
Avionics News July 2015 - 33
Avionics News July 2015 - 34
Avionics News July 2015 - 35
Avionics News July 2015 - A Conversation With...
Avionics News July 2015 - 37
Avionics News July 2015 - Current Status of ADS-B Deployment in the U.S.
Avionics News July 2015 - 39
Avionics News July 2015 - 40
Avionics News July 2015 - 41
Avionics News July 2015 - 42
Avionics News July 2015 - 43
Avionics News July 2015 - Member Profile
Avionics News July 2015 - 45
Avionics News July 2015 - Garmin’s G3X Touch
Avionics News July 2015 - 47
Avionics News July 2015 - 48
Avionics News July 2015 - 49
Avionics News July 2015 - 50
Avionics News July 2015 - 51
Avionics News July 2015 - Artisanal Avionics
Avionics News July 2015 - 53
Avionics News July 2015 - 54
Avionics News July 2015 - 55
Avionics News July 2015 - The Standy Power Dilemma b
Avionics News July 2015 - 57
Avionics News July 2015 - 58
Avionics News July 2015 - 59
Avionics News July 2015 - What’s Working?
Avionics News July 2015 - 61
Avionics News July 2015 - 62
Avionics News July 2015 - 63
Avionics News July 2015 - Business Basics
Avionics News July 2015 - 65
Avionics News July 2015 - 66
Avionics News July 2015 - 67
Avionics News July 2015 - Aviation Aces
Avionics News July 2015 - 69
Avionics News July 2015 - 70
Avionics News July 2015 - 71
Avionics News July 2015 - 72
Avionics News July 2015 - 73
Avionics News July 2015 - What’s New
Avionics News July 2015 - 75
Avionics News July 2015 - 76
Avionics News July 2015 - 77
Avionics News July 2015 - Marketplace Classifieds
Avionics News July 2015 - 79
Avionics News July 2015 - 80
Avionics News July 2015 - Cover3
Avionics News July 2015 - Cover4
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