Avionics News May 2022 - 55

...V
...V
Computer Amplifier
Reference
Servo
5V
28V
Computer Amplifier
Reference
Figure 1. A single-axis autopilot in level flight and in a bank.
Servo
For ease of understanding, all examples in this series
will use DC references. Furthermore, the voltages used in
the examples are arbitrary and don't reflect the actual DC
voltages used by various systems.
Computers/amplifiers
The earliest autopilots consisted mostly of amplification.
If the airplane deviated from level flight, the reference
would produce a voltage, and the amplifier would increase
the voltage to a level that would cause a servo to move the
control surface. As autopilots became more integrated with
navigation systems, engineers added more computing power.
Modern autopilots have incredible computing power, but still
amplify small error signals into higher voltages.
Servos
The servo takes electric or electronic signals and converts
them to the physical power necessary to move the flight
controls. Servos can be pneumatic, hydraulic or electric.
Some servos are simple, and some have amplifiers or
microprocessors included. Many will generate a feedback
signal the computer can use to help make the flight smooth
and to confirm the servo is moving the way it should.
Pneumatic servos are relatively rare. Hydraulic servos
are common on airplanes with hydraulicly boosted controls.
Electric servos are the most common and will be used here
for examples.
Continued on following page
avionics news * may 2022 55

Avionics News May 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Avionics News May 2022

Avionics News May 2022 - Intro
Avionics News May 2022 - Cover1
Avionics News May 2022 - Cover2
Avionics News May 2022 - 1
Avionics News May 2022 - 2
Avionics News May 2022 - 3
Avionics News May 2022 - 4
Avionics News May 2022 - 5
Avionics News May 2022 - 6
Avionics News May 2022 - 7
Avionics News May 2022 - 8
Avionics News May 2022 - 9
Avionics News May 2022 - 10
Avionics News May 2022 - 11
Avionics News May 2022 - 12
Avionics News May 2022 - 13
Avionics News May 2022 - 14
Avionics News May 2022 - 15
Avionics News May 2022 - 16
Avionics News May 2022 - 17
Avionics News May 2022 - 18
Avionics News May 2022 - 19
Avionics News May 2022 - 20
Avionics News May 2022 - 21
Avionics News May 2022 - 22
Avionics News May 2022 - 23
Avionics News May 2022 - 24
Avionics News May 2022 - 25
Avionics News May 2022 - 26
Avionics News May 2022 - 27
Avionics News May 2022 - 28
Avionics News May 2022 - 29
Avionics News May 2022 - 30
Avionics News May 2022 - 31
Avionics News May 2022 - 32
Avionics News May 2022 - 33
Avionics News May 2022 - 34
Avionics News May 2022 - 35
Avionics News May 2022 - 36
Avionics News May 2022 - 37
Avionics News May 2022 - 38
Avionics News May 2022 - 39
Avionics News May 2022 - 40
Avionics News May 2022 - 41
Avionics News May 2022 - 42
Avionics News May 2022 - 43
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Avionics News May 2022 - 46
Avionics News May 2022 - 47
Avionics News May 2022 - 48
Avionics News May 2022 - 49
Avionics News May 2022 - 50
Avionics News May 2022 - 51
Avionics News May 2022 - 52
Avionics News May 2022 - 53
Avionics News May 2022 - 54
Avionics News May 2022 - 55
Avionics News May 2022 - 56
Avionics News May 2022 - 57
Avionics News May 2022 - 58
Avionics News May 2022 - 59
Avionics News May 2022 - 60
Avionics News May 2022 - 61
Avionics News May 2022 - 62
Avionics News May 2022 - 63
Avionics News May 2022 - 64
Avionics News May 2022 - Cover3
Avionics News May 2022 - Cover4
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